GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

 

基础知识解析

一、什么是代词?代词是为了避免重复而用来代替人或事物的词。英语代词可分为人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词、不定代词、疑问代词、连接代词和关系代词。多数代词都具有名词和形容词的作用。

二、人称代词、物主代词、反身代词总表:        

   人称

  

 

第一人称

第二人称

第三人称

单数

复数

单数

复数

单数

复数

阳性

阴性

中性

人称代词主格

I

we

you

you

he

she

it

they

人称代词宾格

me

us

you

you

him

her

it

them

形容词性物主代词

my

our

your

your

his

her

its

their

名词性物主代词

mine

ours

yours

yours

his

hers

its

theirs

反身代词

myself

ourselves

yourself

yourselves

himself

herself

itself

themselves

三、人称代词的用法:

1、人称代词作主语时用主格,作宾语和表语(口语中)时用宾格。如:

She gave the book to you and me. 她把这本书给我和你的。

Who is knocking at the doorIt's me. 谁在敲门?是我。

〖注〗①在强调句型中对作主语的人称代词强调时一般用主格。如:

It was he who did it. 是他干的这事。

butexceptthanas作为介词时,其后的人称代词用宾格;作连词用时,其后的人称代词用主格。如:

I am thinner than she. 我比她瘦。(连词)

I am thinner than her. 我比她瘦。(介词)

Nobody but(except) him knew it. 除了他没有人知道这事。(介词)

③日常会话中,be后面一般使用人称代词宾格,不用主格。如:

Who is it       It’s me/him/her/us/them. ——是谁呀?——是我///我们/他们。

④人称代词主格一般不单独使用,也不用于带not的简短回答中。如:

Who wants a ride on my bike?— Me!/Not me!谁想骑我的自行车?——我!/不是我!

2、人称代词用于泛指。如:

They don’t allow us to smoke here. 这儿不让抽烟。(they代表谁不清楚)

We(You) should keep calm in time of great danger. 危急时刻应保持冷静。(weyou用来泛指一般人)

3、人称代词用于呢指,代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。如:

China will always do what she has promised to do. 中国是说话算数的。

China has risen. She is no longer what she used to be. 中国强大了,不再是以前的中国了。

4、多个人称代词并列时的排列顺序:

并列单数人称尊重他人时:you and Iyouhe and Iyou and he

并列复数复数人称:we and youwe and theyweyou and they

承认错误或主动承担责任时,I 放在前面:I and he made the mistake. 我和他出的这个错。

it的用法:

1、代词it用作人称代词,代替前文提到过的人或事物本身(同名同物),不带任何修饰语。如:

My pen is missing. I can't find it anywhere. 我的钢笔丢了,我到处都找不见。

The frog is not a warm-blooded animal. It's a cold-blooded one. 青蛙不是恒温动物,而是冷血动物。

Jack is ill. Have you heard about it?杰克病了,你听说了吗?

2it有时也可用于指人。如:

Who is that speakingIt's Jenny speaking. 是谁?我是詹妮。

I didn't know it was you. 我不知道是你。

3it用来代替指示代词thisthat。如:

What's this?—It's a flag. ——这是什么?——是一面旗帜。

Whose exercise-book is that It's hers. ——那是谁的练习本?——是她的。

4it表示时间、天气、距离等。如:

It's time for lunch. 该吃午饭了。

When spring comesit gets warmer and warmer. 春天来了,天气越来越暖和。

It's about two li from here to the zoo. 从这儿到动物园大约有两里。

5it用作形式主语,代替由不定式(或不定式复合结构)、动名词或从句表示的真正主语。如:

He had to sit up nowfor it was impossible for him to sleep. 他只好坐起来,因为他不可能睡着了。

It's no use telling him that. 告诉他这个也没用。

It's not yet known where she has gone. 没人知道她去哪儿了。

6it用作形式宾语,代替由不定式、动名词或从句表示的真正宾语。如:

He feels it his duty to help others. 他觉得帮助别人是他的职责。

We thought it no use doing that. 我们认为没必要做那个。

They want to make it clear to the public that they do an important and necessary job. 他们想让大众认识到他们做的是一项重要且必要的工作。

7it也可作非人称动词的主语或宾语。如:

It seemed that he would have nothing to take home. 看来他没有东西可以带回家了。

I hate it when people talk with their mouths full. 我讨厌人们含着满口食物讲话。

8it用于强调结构中来强调句子的某一成分(通常是主语、宾语或状语),常用强调结构“It is(was)+被强调成分+that (who) …”,可用来分别强调句中的主语、宾语、地点状语和时间状语:

It was I who saw Li Ping in the street this morning. 是我今天早晨在街上看到李平的。

It was Li Ping that I saw in the street this morning. 今天早晨我在街上看到的是李平。

It was in the street that (不用where) I saw Li Ping this morning. 我今天早晨是在街上看到李平的。

It was this morning (不用when) I saw Li Ping in the street. 我是今天早晨在街上看到李平的。

9、常见以it引起的句型结构:

1It is+第几次+that sb. have/has done sth.

It is the first time that I’ve come here. 这是我第一次来这儿。

2It is/has been+一段时间+since sth. happened

It is/has been ten years since I began to learn English. 自从我开始学习英语以来已经十年了。

3Itbe+多长时间+before+主语+谓语:

It won’t be long before you regret what you’ve done. 不儿你就会你所做的事情而悔恨的。

4It seems/looks as if/though sth. will happen

It looks as if it’s going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。

5Itbenot until ……that+主语+谓语:

It was not until last night that he finally made up his mind. 直到昨天晚上他才下定决心。

、物主代词的用法:形容词性的物主代词只能作定语,如:my book我的书。名词性的物主代词常用来代替前面已提及的名词,在句子中作表语、主语、宾语或与 of 连用作定语。如:

This dictionary is mine. 这本词典是我的。(表语)

Our room is on the first floor and theirs (is) on the second. 我们的房间在二楼,他们的房间在三楼。(定语;主语)

You may use my penI'll use hers. 你可以用我的笔,我用她的好了。(定语;宾语)

That answer of yours is quite correct. 你的那种答案是很正确的。(宾语)

信末用名词性的物主代词:YoursYours everYours truly

六、反身代词的用法:

1、反身代词在句中一般用作宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语,表示“自己”的意思。如:

He thinks more of others than of himself. 他想到别人比想到自己要多一些。(介词宾语)

He can look after himself. 他能照顾自己。(宾语)

They enjoyed themselves at Disneyland. 他们在迪斯尼乐园玩得很开心。(宾语)

Take good care of yourself. 好好保重/多保重。(介词宾语)

This they kept for themselves. 他们将这些据为已有。(介词宾语)

I am not quite myself these days. 我近来身体不大舒服。(表语)

You may go and ask the president yourself. 你可以自己去问校长。(同位语)

She opened the door herself. 她亲自开门。(同位语)

I myself did all the work. 我亲自做了所有的工作。(同位语)

You’d better ask your father himself. 你最好问你父亲本人。(同位语)

〖注〗作同位语时,可放在与之同位的词后面,也可放在句末。

2、含有反身代词的词组:

by oneself 亲自;enjoy oneself 自娱;for oneself为自己;call oneself自称;of oneself自动地;dress oneself自穿;to oneself 暗自;excuse oneself 自我辩解;devote oneself to奉献给;teach oneself自学         help oneself to 随便吃;speak to oneself自言自语;make oneself understood 让别人懂自己的意思;please oneself 自便;seat oneself=sit down=be seated 坐下

七、相互代词one anothereach other。如:

We should learn from each other and help each other. 我们应当互相学习、互相帮助。

For years the two sisters looked after one another (each other). 多年来两姐妹互相照顾。

We should point out each other's shortcomings. 我们应当指出彼此的缺点。

Did you know each other at that time?你们那时认识吗?

八、指示代词thisthatthesethosesuchsame

1this / these一般指时空上较近的人或物(近指),that / those常时空上较远的人或物(远指)。在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语。如:

This (That) is what I want to say. 这(那)就是我想说的。

Is this the bus we want?—Yesthat's it. ——这就是我们要上的车吗?——是的。

We should always keep this (these) in mind. 我们应当经常记住这一(几)点。

My idea is this. 我的意见是这样的。

For these(those) reasons we've decided to cancel the trip. 由于这些原因我们决定取消这次旅行。

Those who wish to go to the concert may sign up here. 想去音乐会的人员可以在这里签名。

What's that floating on the water?水上漂的东西是什么?

2、在英语中,为了避免重复,用that替代不可数名词或概念名词,用those (=the ones)替代可数名词复数。两词替代的同名异物,常有修饰语(介词短语)在后面。指示代词thatthose,起承上的作用;而this常指代下面将要说到的人或事,起启下的作用。如:

Although video camera is expensiveI want to buy one. 虽然录像机很贵,但我还是想买一台。

The students in your school study harder than those in ours. 你们学校的学生比我们学校的学生学习更努力。

New shoots will come up around the roots of the old ones. 新的嫩芽会从老根周围长出来。

The population of Beijing is smaller than that of Shanghai. 北京的人口比上海的人口少。

The climate in Beijing is quite different from that in Guangzhou. 北京的气候与广州的气候大不相同。

I'll take the seat next to the one by the window. 我就坐窗口边那个座位旁边的那个座位吧。

My room was lighter than the one next door. 我的房间比隔壁那间亮一些。

I want to tell you thisthe English party will be held on Saturday afternoon. 我要告诉你的是:英语晚会将在星期六下午举行。

The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing. 北京的天气比南京的冷。

The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox. 兔子的耳朵比狐狸的耳朵长。

He hurt his leg yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come. 他昨天伤了腿,这就是他没来的原因。

3thisthat有时可以用作副词(=so),表示程度。如:

Can hard work change a person that much?苦活可以使人改变那么大吗?

I am not this foolish. 我没有那样傻。

4、指示代词such在句子中可以用作定语、主语和表语。如:

Such was the story. 故事就是这样的。(主语)

Such would be our home in the future. 我们未来的家庭就是这个样子的。(主语)

I don't like such weather. 我不喜欢这样的天气。(定语)

His illness was not such as to cause anxiety. 他的病还不至于使人焦虑不安。(表语)

To sell such a suit as that to a millionaire! 把那样一套衣服卖给百万富翁!(定语)

5、指示代词same前面加the,在句中作定语、宾语、表语、主语等。如:

They both landed on the surface of the moon at the same time. 他们俩人同时在月球表面着陆。(定语)

We must all say the same. 我们讲的必须都相同。(宾语)

The price is the same as last year. 价格与去年相同。(表语)

The same can be said of the other article. 另一篇文章也是同样的情况。(主语)

6suchsame也是形容词。所修饰的名词接有定语从句时,关系代词用as。如:

Such words as “such” and “same” can also be pronouns. such”和“same”这样的词也可以是名词。

He did the same as I did. 他做的事和我做的事一样。

九、不定代词的用法:不定代词表示不定数量的人或物。它们具有形容词的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、同位语、定语、状语等。不定代词主要有:alleacheverybotheitherneitheronenonelittlefewmanymuchotheranothersomeanyno以及someanynoeverythingonebodywhere等构成的合成不定代词。

1、不定代词eachbothallnoneithereither等。用法及意义见下表:

 

代表每一(个)

代表两者

代表(三者或三者以上)

肯定

each每一

every每个

both两者都

all三者以上“都”

部分否定

not every/each

every/each not

并非每一个

not both / both not

并非两个都

either随便哪个

not all / all not并非所有都

完全否定

no=not any没有

neither两者都不

none没有一个人/

no one没有人;无人

如:

There are trees on both sides of the street. 街道两旁都有树。(定语)

There are trees on neither side of the street. 街道两旁都没有树。(定语)

I have no (=not any) sisters. 我没有姐妹。(定语)

There is no (=not any) bread on the plate. 盘子里没有面包。(定语)

Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。(主语)

Both of us are not teachers. 我们俩并不都是教师。(主语)

We both are students. 我们俩都是学生。(同位语)

All the visitors have been shown around the factory. 所有的客人都带去参观了那个工厂。(定语)

All of us have visited the factory. 我们都参观了那个工厂。(主语)

We have all visited the factory. 我们都参观了那个工厂。(主语的同位语)

This dictionary is helpful for us all. 这本词典对我们大家都有用。(宾语的同位语)

I told him all about it. 我把一切都告诉了他。(宾语)

That’s all for today. 今天就到这儿。(表语)

Here are two pens. You may take either of them. 这里有两支笔,你可以随便拿一支。(宾语)

Which do you prefertea or coffee?—Either will do. ——你要茶还是咖啡?——随便哪样都行。(主语)

There are trees on either side of the street. 街道两旁都有树。

〖注〗①none后可接of短语,no one在句中单独作主语、宾语;none作主语时,谓语动词多用复数,也可用单数。none主要回答how many的问题,no one则主要回答who引导的问题。而nothing则回答what提出的问题。如:

None of us are/is late for the meeting. 我们当中没有一个人开会迟到。

No one is late for the meeting. 没有人开会迟到。

I like none of the pictures. 这些照片我一张都不喜欢。

I know no one there. 这儿没有人我认识。

Who went to see the film last night­— No one. ——昨晚有谁去看了电影?——谁也没有去。

How many of you went to see the film?—None. ——昨晚有多少人去看了电影?——没有一个人去。

everyeach都有“每一个”的意思,但every强调整体,each强调个体,every只能作定语,each可作主语、宾语、定语和同位语等;each还可放在句末,作副词用。如:

Each of us has a pen to write with. 我们每个人都有一支钢笔来写字。(主语,强调各个个体)

Not every student can answer this question. 并非每个学生都能回答这个问题。(定语,强调所有的人)

We each got a ticket. 我们每人都得到一张票。(同位语)

The teacher gave the students a new textbook each. 老师发给每位学生一本新课本。(句末,副词作状语)

either也可作副词,表示“也”的意思,用于否定句末。如:

He doesn’t like teaand I don’teither. 他不喜欢茶,我也不喜欢。(状语)

neither也可用作副词,表示“也不”的意思,注意倒装。如:

He can’t do itneither can I. 他做不了这事,我也做不了。

eitheror…不是……就是……、要么……要么……;neithernor…既不……也不……,构成关联连词,注意引导并列主语时,遵循就近一致的原则。如:

He is either Japanese or Chinese. 他不是日本人,就是中国人。

Either you or he is a student. 要么你是学生,要么他是学生。

Neither he nor you are student. 他不是学生,你也不是学生。

bothalleachnone作主语的同位语时,要放在行为动词的前面,be动词、助动词和情态动词的后面。但是,如果句子是简略形式,即以be动词、情态动词或助动词结尾,这些不定代词则位于这些动词之前。如:

They each have an English dictionary. 他们每人都有一本英文辞典。

We have both been reading the same novel all these days. 这些天我们都在读同一本小说。

How foolish you all are!你们都太傻了!

Who can speak English?—We all can. ——谁能讲英语?——我们都可以。

2、不定代词oneonesone表示“人”或“一个人”,其复数形式为ones;指人时,其所有格为one’s,反身代词为oneselfoneones也可用来代替前面出现过的名词,以避免重复,替代的是同名异物,有泛指含义。如要特指,前面分别可以用thisthatthesethosethewhich等词修饰。如:

One should do one’s best to help others. 一个人应该尽力帮助别人。

This is not the one I want. 这不是我要的那个。

The new machines are better than the old ones. 这些新的机器比那些旧的机器要好。

Here are three pens. Which one is yoursthis one or that one or the one in the pencil-box?这里有3支钢笔。哪支是你的,这支、那支,还是铅笔盒里的那支?

3、不定代词someanynosomebodyanybodynobodysomethinganythingnothing

1some/any/nosome修饰单数可数名词时表示“某个”,any修饰单数可数名词时表示“任何一个”,修饰复数和不可数名词时两者意思都是“一些”;no的意思是“没有”,作定语用,构成否定意义,如no oneno timeno use等。some(something)多用于肯定句,any(anything)多用于疑问句和否定句或条件句中。如:

He has some Chinese paintings. 他有一些中国画。(定语)

Some like sports. Others like music. 一些人喜欢运动,另一些人喜欢音乐。(主语)

If you have any questionsplease ask me. 如果你有问题就问我。(定语)

Do you have any questions to ask me?你有问题要问我吗?(定语)

I don’t know any of the students. 这些学生我一个都不认识。(宾语)

〖注〗①在提供服务或向他人借东西、或询问具体内容、或期望得到对方肯定的答复时,在表示请求或邀请的疑问句中也可用some (something)。如:

Would you like some tea?要不要喝茶?(邀请)

Could you lend me some money?能给我借些钱吗?(请求,希望得到肯定的答复)

Do you know something about the matter?(希望得到对方肯定的答复)

some用于单数可数名词前,表示“某一”。如:

Smith went to some place in England. 史密斯到英国某地去了。(定语)

any用于肯定句,表示“任何”的意思:You may take any of them. 你可以拿其中任何一个。(宾语)

Any child can do that. 任何孩子都会做那事。(定语)

some用于否定句时,表示部分否定。如:

I don’t know some of the students. 这些学生中我有些不认识。

2someanyeveryno可分别与onebodything构成复合不定代词:

 

 

some

any

no

every

one

someone

有人、某人

anyone

任何人

no one无人none无一个

everyone

每人、人人

body

somebody

有人、某人

anybody

任何人

nobody

无人

everybody

人人、大家

thing

something

某件事情

anything

任何事

nothing

没有事/东西

everything

一切事情

where

somewhere

某处

anywhere

任何地方

nowhere

无任何地方

everywhere

到处

这些复合不定代词在句中可作主语、宾语和表语,而不能作定语;作主语时,谓语动词用单数。这些词如有定语修饰,一律置于其后。不定式作定语时,一般不用被动语态(there be结构中,主动、被动均可)。如:

Someone has come to see you. 有人来看你。

I have something important to tell you. 我有一些重要的事情告诉你。

There's nothing to do (to be done) this afternoon. 今天下午没事做。

4、不定代词littlefewa littlea fewmanymuchseveralfewa fewmanyseveral修饰可数名词;littlea littlemuch修饰不可数名词。fewlittle有否定意义,表示“没有什么”,a fewa little有肯定意义,表示“有几个”,“有一些”,而several是三个以上的“几个”,比a few 语气更强些。如:

There are (a) few students in the classroom. 教室里没有几个(有几个)学生。(定语)

There is a little (little) ink in the bottle and you may (not) use it. 瓶子里有一点/没有什么墨水了,你(不)可以用了。(定语)

I have several pens here and you may use any of them. 这儿我有几支笔,你可以使用任意一支。(定语)

Many of the students work hard at their lessons. 许多学生学习很用功。(主语)

He said he had much to do. 他说他有许多事要做。(宾语)

Little (A little) has been done to prevent the air from being polluted. 没有采取什么措施(采取了一些措施)来防止空气污染。(主语)

〖注〗quite a few=many许多、相当多;quite a little=much许多、相当多;as many/much as多达;many a许多;not a little = much许多、非常;not a bit = not at all一点也不、根本不

5、不定代词otheranotherthe otherothersthe others

 

单数

复数

泛指

another+单数名词:(三个或多个)的另一个

another+复数名词:再一(批),又一(批)

one…another/a second…a third … the other…:一个…一个…一个…另一个,用于三者或三者以上的排列

others / other + 复数名词:其他的(别的)人或物

some…others…others…

一些…一些…一些

特指

the other两者中的另一个

the other + 复数名词:其余(他)的…

one…the other…(两者或多者列举)一个…另一个…

the others其他的人或物

otheranotherthe other“另外,另一个”,可修饰或代替单数可数名词。othersthe others“另外的人(物)”,代替复数可数名词。otheranotherothers表示泛指(another前不用冠词),the others表示特指。other与数词连用时,一般放在数词的后面。如:

I have two good friends. One is Jack and the other is Tom. 我有两个好朋友,一个是杰克,另一个是汤姆。

After class some are playing and others are singing. 下课后,一些人在活动,另一些人在唱歌。

Give me another cup of teaplease. 请再给我一杯茶。

I don't like this one. Please give me another. 我不喜欢这个,请给我再拿一个。

There are 50 students in our class. Some are singing and the others are dancing. 我们班有五十名学生,一些在唱歌,其余的在跳舞。

We have another two lessons today. 我们今天另外上了两节课。

There are four cars in the yard. One is redanother(a second) is yellowa third is blueand the other is black. 院子里有四辆车,一辆是红色的,一辆是黄色的,一辆是蓝色的,一辆是黑色的。

There are plenty of beautiful flowers in the garden. Some are redothers are yellowand still others are white. 花园里有很多美丽的花,一些是红色的,一些是黄色的,还有一些是白色的。

十、疑问代词:疑问代词whowhomwhosewhatwhich用来构成特殊疑问句。如:

Who is that speaking?哪位在打电话?

Who(m) are you talking about?你们在说谁?

What happened next?后来怎么样了呢?

Whose is better?谁的好些?Which is yours?哪个是你的?

What's your father?你父亲是干什么工作的?

Whose book is this?这是谁的书?

Which train will you take?你搭哪一班火车?

十一、连接代词:连接代词whowhomwhosewhichwhatthat引导名词性从句,包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。如:

Who will go is not important. 谁要去根本不重要。(主语从句)

It's strange that he didn't come yesterday. 他昨天没来真奇怪。(主语从句)

They are just what I shall have. 这些正是我想要的。(表语从句)

Do you know whose book this is?你知道这是谁的书吗?(宾语从句)

We heard the news that our team had won. 我们听到了我们队赢了的消息。(同位语从句)

Which team will win the match is still unknown. 哪个队能赢现在还不知道。(主语从句)

(参见第十六章——复合句)

十二、关系代词:关系代词whowhomwhosewhichthat引导定语从句。whowhomwhosethat可指人,whosethatwhich指物;who在定语从句中作主语,whose作定语,whom作宾语,whichthat可作主语、宾语。如:

The finger that I put into my mouth was not the one that I had dipped into the cup. 我放进嘴里的手指和在杯中浸过的手指不是同一个。

The film which we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨晚看的那场电影很精彩。

Who's the man whom you just talked to?刚才和你讲话的那男人是谁?

Wei Fang is the student whose home caught fire last week. 魏芳就是上周家里发生炎灾的那个学生。

The comrade who visited our class yesterday is our new headmaster. 昨天到我们班来视察的那位同志就晚们的新校长。

(参见第十六章——复合句)

十三、连接代词that与关系代词that的比较:连接代词that只起引导词作用,在句中不担任任何成分(引导宾语从句时可省略)。而that作关系代词时,除了充当定语从句的引导词外,还在从句中担任一定成分,如主语、宾语(作宾语时可省略)。如:

The man (that) you were talking about has come to our school. 你曾谈及的那个男人已经到我们学校了。(作talk about的宾语)

I have never taken anything that didn't belong to me. 我从未拿过不属于我的东西。(作主语)

That she doesn't like this book is obvious. =It is obvious that she doesn't like this book. )很明显,她不喜欢这本书。(主语从句)

The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody. 他什么都没有说,这个事实让每个人都深感震惊。(同位语从句)

 

高考试题归类

人称代词

1. The Parkers bought a new house but ____ will need a lot of work before they can move in. 2001

         A. they   B. it       C. one   D. which

2. Susango and join your sister cleaning the yard.

Why ____? John is sitting there doing nothing. NMET2003

A. him      B. he       C. I        D. me

         物主代词

1. His camera is more expensive than ____. 1989

         A. hers   B. he    C. it      D. its

2. Kate and her sister went on holiday with a cousin of ____. 1990

         A. their  B. theirs          C. her   D. hers

3. —Is your camera like Bill's and Ann's

—Nobut it's almost the same as ____. 1994

         A. her    B. yours          C. themD. their

         反身代词  

1. —Can you leave your children at home alone

 —Yesthey can take care of ____ now. 1985

         A. them B. theirs          C. themselfs    D. themselves

2. Tom felt that he knew everybody’s business better than they knew it ____.     1996

        A. themselves    B. oneself         C. itselfD. himself

         不定代词

1. I just want a pencil____ will do. 1985

         A. anyone         B. any one      C. it      D. one

2. Some people like to stay at home on Sundaybut ____ like to go to the cinema.      1985

         A. another        B. otherC. othersD. other one

3. —Are the two answers correct

 —No____ correct.          1986

         A. no one is      B. both are not C. neither is    D. either is not

4. These plants are watered ____.          1986

         A. each other day        B. every other day      C. each of the days     D. every of two days

5. As we were asleep____ of us heard the sound. 1987

         A. both  B. noneC. either          D. any

6. Although he's wealthyhe spends ____ on clothes. 1987

         A. little  B. few  C. a littleD. a few

7. I'd been expecting ____ letters the whole morningbut there weren't ____ to me. 1989

         A. someany    B. manya few        C. someone   D. a fewnone

8. ____ of them knew about the plan because it was kept a secret. 1990

         A. Each  B. Any C. No one       D. None

9. We couldn't eat in a restaurant because ____ of us had ____ money on us. 1991

         A. allno         B. anyno     C. noneany   D. no oneany

10. Mr Zhang gave the textbooks to all the pupils except ____ who had already taken them. 1992

         A. the ones       B. ones C. someD. the others

11. —Is ____ here

—No. Bob and Tim have asked for leave. 1993

         A. anybody      B. everybody  C. somebody  D. nobody

12. They were all very tiredbut ____ of them would stop to take a rest. 1995

         A. any   B. some          C. noneD. neither

13. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have ____.          1995

         A. it       B. those          C. themD. one

14. —When shall we meet again

—Make it ____ day you likeit’s all the same to me. 1996

        A. one    B. any  C. another       D. some

15. I agree with most of what you saidbut I don’t agree with ____. 1997

A. everything     B. anything     C. something   D. nothing

16. Sarah had read lots of stories by American writers. Now she would like to read ____ stories by writers from ____ countries. 1997

A. someany    B. othersomeC. otherotherD. someother

17. —Can you come on Monday or Tuesday

 —I’m afraid ________ day is possible. 1998

         A. either B. neither         C. some D. any

18. —Are the new rules working

—Yes. _____ books are stolen. 1999

         A. Few   B. MoreC. SomeD. None

19. If you want to change for a double room you’ll have to pay ____ $15. 2000

         A. anotherB. other C. more D. each

20. Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or CambridgeI can’t remember _____. 1998

         A. where B. there C. which          D. that

21. Few pleasures can equal _____ of a cool drink on a hot day. 1999

         A. some  B. any   C. that   D. those

22. —Why don’t we take a little break

 —Didn’t we just have ____ 2000

         A. it        B. that  C. one   D. this

23. —Do you want tea or coffee

  —________. I really don't mind.      2000春】

  A. Both   B. None   C. Either    D. Neither

24. Many people have helped with canned foodhoweverthe food bank needs____ for the poor. 2001春】

A. more B. much          C. many          D. most

25. In that casethere is nothing you can do____ than wait. 2001春】

A. more B. otherC. better          D. any

26. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment____ I will always treasure. NMET2002

A. that         B. one  C. it       D. what

27. There’s coffee and tea; you can have ____.

Thanks. NMET2003

A. either B. each  C. one   D. it

28. Your coffee smells great!

It’s from Mexico. Would you like ____?NMET2003春】

A. it         B. some C. this   D. little

it的用法

1. Is ____ necessary to tell his father everything?【1987

         A. it       B. that  C. whatD. this

2. Is ____ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship?【1988

         A. now  B. man C. that  D. it

3. Is ____ necessary to complete the design before National Day?【1989

         A. this    B. that   C. it      D. he

4. I don't think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work. 1990

         A. this    B. that  C. its    D. it

5. Does ____ matter if he can't finish the job on time 1991

         A. this    B. that   C. he    D. it

6. I was disappointed with the film. I had expected ____ to be much better. 1993

         A. that   B. this   C. one  D. it

7. ____ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. 1995

         A. There  B. This C. ThatD. It

8. I hate ________ when people talk with their mouths full. 1998

         A. it        B. that   C. these D. them

9. Come and see me whenever ____. 【京2003

         A. you are convenient    B. you will be convenient

         C. it is convenient to you D. it will be convenient to you

     it的强调用法

1. Was it during the Second World War ____ he died 1988

         A. that   B. while          C. in which     D. then

2. It was not ____ she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star. 1992

         A. whenthat   B. untilthat   C. untilwhen D. whenthen

3. It was not until 1920 ____ regular radio broadcasts began. 1995

         A. while B. whichC. that  D. since

4. It was about 600 years ago ____ the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. 1997

A. that   B. until C. beforeD. when

5. It was only when I reread his poems recently ________ I began to appreciate their beauty. 1998

         A. until   B. that   C. then  D. so

6. It is the ability to do the job ____ matters not where you come from or what you are. 2000

         A. one     B. that   C. what D. it

 

能力过关检测

1. Excuse meI want to have my watch fixedbut I cant’ find a repair shop.

I know ____ nearby. Come onI’ll show you.

     A. one     B. it        C. some  D. that

2. The culture customs of America are very much like ____ of England.

         A. that    B. what   C. which D. those

3. Talking about buying carsI prefer a car less than 10000 RMB to ____ over the amount.

         A. this    B. one     C. it        D. that

4. The high quality of our shirts makes ____ different from ____ made in other factories.

         A. it; thatB. them; those   C. us; those       D. that; those

5. The graying of America has made us a very different society____ in which people have a quite different idea of what kind of behavior is suitable.

        A. that    B. the one C. it        D. one

6. How about the price of these washing machines?

 They are at least equal in price toif not cheaper than____ at other stores.

        A. others  B. ones  C. that   D. those

7. In Britain there are people whose family backgroundeducationpolitical opinionsetcare different from____ of most working-class people.

        A. those   B. ones   C. that    D. these

8. I’m looking for a house. I’d like____ with a big garden.

        Yesmadam. We’ve several of this kind.

        A. that     B. it        C. this     D. one

9. President Andrew Jackson was a controversial figure in his own day and ____ ever since.

        A. is one  B. was   C. has been one   D. had been one

10. Can I help you?

I’d like to buy a present for my cousin____ at a proper price but of great use.

        A. one      B. it        C. that    D. which

11. The best job is ____ which uses your skill in doing something together with your interest in the subject.

        A. something      B. the one C. one     D. it

12. No bread eaten by man is so sweet as____ earned by his own labour.

        A. one      B. what   C. such   D. that

13. There must be a dozen pens in this house but I can never find one when I need one.

        Keep looking. ____ is sure to turn up.

        A. One    B. It        C. That   D. This

14. Ms Claire is a strict but kind teacher____ whousually____ her students.

        A. ones; are liked by B. one; are liked by

        C. ones; is popular among   D. one; is popular with

15. Is this house ____ you and your parents lived in the year before last?

        A. which  B. that    C. the one D. where

16. A sheep____ on this kind of special grass usually grows much faster than____ on ordinary.

        A. fed; one         B. feeds; the one          C. fed; that       D. feeding; it

17. What can I do for you?

I’d like to buy a present for my mother’s birthday____ at a proper price but of great use.

A. that     B. which C. one     D. everything

18. A child notices a thousand times a day the difference between the language he uses and the language ____ around him use.

         A. who   B. which C. that    D. those

19. I don’t doubt that the price of the red apples is higher than ____ of the yellow ____ in this area.

         A. those; that    B. that; those     C. those; ones    D. that; ones

20. Jack is one of those men who I am sure always do ____ best even in the most difficult situations.

         A. his      B. your   C. their   D. one’s

21. It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached____ highest point.

        A. their   B. its        C. his      D. our

22. If a student can make what has been learned____whether in class or from social practicehe will make steady progress.

        A. his own         B. him    C. himself         D. own

23. Each man and woman must sign ____ full names before entering the exam room.

         A. their   B. his      C. her      D. one’s

24. I need your help. Can you come this Saturday or Sunday?

Sorry. I’m afraid ____ day is possible.

A. any      B. every  C. each    D. neither

25. I haven’t read ____ of his booksbut judging from the one I have read I think he’s a very promising writer.

         A. neither          B. any     C. either  D. none

26. Which one can I take?

You can take ____ of them; I’ll keep none.

A. both    B. any     C. either  D. all

27. I asked all my teachers the same questionand they____ gave me a different answer.

        A. each     B. all         C. every  D. both

28. I am afraid we can’t have coffee; there’s____ left.

        A. none    B. nothingC. no        D. no one

29. Has____ of your parents visited your teacher?

 No____.

        A. bothneither  B. eitherneither         C. anyeither   D. allnot any

30. —Do you enjoy these two novels?

        —I should if____ of them was written well.

        A. every  B. each   C. both  D. any

31. Have you got any trouble in operating the computer?

____ to worry about. I have just finished a course in program design.

        A. Nothing         B. I’m afraid     C. None D. Sure

32. —Have you finished all of the exercises?

        —Yescompletely. ____ is left.

        A. None  B. Nothing        C. No one         D. Neither

33. Is there anyone who is going to the Great Wall?

        —____.

        A. None   B. No one C. No      D. Not any

34. Do you want to use the pen or the pencil?

____.

A. Either does well B. Either one will do C. Each one is good D. Each will be fine

35. On seeing the policethe robbers ran away separately____ carrying a bag.

        A. all          B. each    C. who    D. either

36. If you can dream____you can do____.

        A. one; it  B. it; one C. one; one          D. it; it

37. —Who is making so much noise in the garden?

— ____ the children.

        A. It is    B. They are      C. That isD. There are

38. Is it my age____ the boss minds?

I’m afraid not. He will consider____ necessary to have an experienced assistant.

        A. which; it          B. that; itC. which; that    D. that; that

39. ____ needs further discussion to decide whether we will____ the war operation.

        A. Itjoin in    B. Thistake part in   C. Thatjoin    D. Thereattend

40. I took ____ that they would apologize for what they had done to the picture.

        A. it seriously     B. it wrong          C. into consideration D. it for granted

41. Why don’t you bring ____ to his attention that you are too busy to do it?

         A. this   B. what   C. that    D. it

42. Last month the value of US dollars rose more sharply than ____ of British pounds.

         A. it        B. that    C. one     D. those

43. Why is ____ you are so late for the class?

         A. it that B. that it C. it        D. that

44. When I try to understand ____ that prevents so many Americans from being as happy as one might expectit seems to me that there are two causes.

        A. what it is        B. what it does  C. why it does   D. why it is

45. Were all the people in the car injured in the accident?

No____ only the two passengers who got hurt.

A. it were B. there was      C. there is D. it was

46. Because the first pair of trousers did not fit properlyhe asked for ____.

        A. another trousers        B. others trousers         C. the others once        D. another pair

47. Bill bought three books____ in Japanese____ in French and ____ in Chinese.

         A. the first; the other; the third     B. one; the other; a third

         C. one; another; the third   D. one; the other; another

48. The party we had last week was a lot of fun.

So let’s have ____ next week.

A. the one  B. the other one  C. another one   D. other one

49. When all people of the world are of one heart____ becomes easy.

         A. something     B. each thing      C. nothingD. everything

50. Do you live ____ near Jim?

Nohe lives in another part of the town.

A. somewhere   B. nowhere        C. anywhere      D. everywhere

51. The medicine is on sale ____. You can get it at any Chemist’s.

         A. anywhere      B. somewhere    C. everywhere   D. nowhere

52. Nowadays everything strange is ____ strange. That is to sayany unexpected thing is possible to happen.

         A. something     B. anything        C. nothingD. everything

53. Help will come form the UNbut the aid will be ____ near what is needed.

         A. everywhere   B. somewhere    C. anywhere      D. nowhere

54. What kind of food would you like to eat?

____ but Japanese.

        How about Koreanthen?

        A. Anything       B. Something     C. Everything    D. Nothing

55. The man has lived in the small town for 20 years. So he knows ____ who is ____ there.

        A. somebodynobody       B. everybodyanybody

       C. nobodyeverybody     D. anybodyeverybody

56. Who did you find in the room?

____.

        A. None  B. Not   C. No     D. Nobody

57. Students should be encouraged to finish their homework ____.

         A. of themselves B. of their own    C. for their own  D. on their own

58. When shall we unite again?

Make it ____ day you like; it’s all the same to me.

A. one      B. any     C. some  D. another

59. You know Mr Green has been ill for days?

YesI wonder if he is ____ better now.

A. some   B. much  C. any     D. no

60. Haven’t you got____ friends in Paris? I feel sure you did mention them once.

        A. any     B. no        C. some  D. lots

61. Never have I seen ____ little fish. There are ____ fish that I don’t know how to give them to all the people.

         A. such; so few   B. so; such few   C. such; such little        D. so; so little

62. As I was just getting familiar with this jobI had ____ to ask my boss.

        A. many   B. most   C. more   D. much

63. Although many anti-war movements have broken out throughout the world____ said anything in favor of president Saddamhowever.

        A. some people    B. few people    C. many peopleD. any people

64. I wonder what will be left ____ the buildings in Iraq after the war. As far as I know____ have been destroyed.

       A. off; those      B. of; many      C. for; not a few          D. for; ones

65. If tap water were as dangerous as some people think____ would be getting sick.

        A. more a lot of us         B. a lot of us more        C. a lot more of us        D. a lot of more us

66. ____ or you will fail; ____ would be the situation you face.

        A. Try hard; so         B. Don’t lose heart; which   

        C. Go all out; such  D. Keep up your courage; as

67. —I wonder if I can get a raise in salary.

 —You have been paid enough. ____ do you want?

        A. How much      B. What more     C. What else     D. How much more

68. The young lady spoke so fast that I understood ____ of her speech.

         A. a littleB. little   C. a bit    D. lot

69. For quite ____ studentstheir teacher’s advice is more important than ____ of their parents’.

         A. few; one        B. a few; that     C. a little; some   D. a lot; many

70. I don’t like orange juice. I like ____ fruit juice.

         A. some other    B. some others  C. other  D. one other

71. He was almost killed once.

When was ____?

____was in 1988 when he was in the college.

A. that; It B. this; This      C. this; ItD. that; This

72. What do you think of the film?

        WonderfulI thinkJust as good as____ of the filmswe’ve seen.

        A. any      B. anotherC. that    D. one

73. Animals do nottalkwith words. They use smellssounds and movements to communicate with____ animal.

        A. any other       B. anotherC. each other     D. the other

74. Some of this food came from Japan. How about ____?

        A. the others      B. the restC. another         D. the other

75. —How do you find the football match?

—WonderfulI think. Just as fine as____ of the matches we’ve seen.

        A. one     B. another         C. some D. any

76. Not____ present expressed their satisfaction with the new decisionbut it was made at last.

        A. most   B. any    C. one     D. all

77. ____ and fond of watching TV after supperbut ____ prefer to go out.

         A. I and my family; he and his family     B. My family and I; his family and he

         C. I and my family; his family and he      D. My family and I; he and his family

 

Key:

高考试题归类:

人称代词:BD

物主代词:ABB

反身代词:DA

不定代词:BCCBB AADCA BCDBA DBAAC CCCAB BAB

it的用法:ADCDD DDAC

it的强调用法:ABCAB B

 

能力过关检测:         ADBBD DADCA CDADC ACDDC BAADC DAABB

CABBB DABAD DBAAD DCCDA CCDAB DDBCC

ADBBC CDBBA AACBD DD

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案