GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

基础知识解析

一、数词的定义:表示数目的多少或顺序次第的词叫数词。数词分基数词和序数词两种。

1、基数词用来表示数目或数量多少。最基本的基数词见下表:

112

1319

2090

百,千,百万,十亿

1 one

13 thirteen

20 twenty

100 a hundred

2 two

14 fourteen

30 thirty

3 three

15 fifteen

40 forty

1,000 a thousand

4 four

16 sixteen

50 fifty

5 five

17 seventeen

60 sixty

1,000,000 a million

6 six

18 eighteen

70 seventy

7 seven

19 nineteen

80 eighty

1,000,000,000 a billion

8 eight

 

90 ninety

9 nine

 

 

 

10 ten

 

 

11 eleven

 

 

 

12 twelve

 

 

2、序数词用来表示数目顺序。最基本的序数词见下表(特别注意划线单词的拼法)

1至第12

13至第19

20至第90

百,千,百万,十亿

1st first

13th thirteenth

20th twentieth

100th

a hundredth

2nd second

14th fourteenth

30th thirtieth

3rd third

15th fifteenth

40th fortieth

1,000th

a thousandth

4th fourth

16th sixteenth

50th fiftieth

5th fifth

17th seventeenth

60th sixtieth

1,000,000th

a millionth

6th sixth

18th eighteenth

70th seventieth

7th seventh

19th nineteenth

80th eightieth

1,000,000,000th

a billionth

8th eighth

 

90th ninetieth

9th ninth

 

 

 

10th tenth

 

21st twenty-first

11th eleventh

 

22nd twenty-second

 

12th twelfth

 

其余类推

二、常数表达法:

1、整数:从右至左分节表示,每三位一节,第二节第一位数为thousand,第三节第一位数为million; 第四节第一位数为billion。如1234567890读作 one billiontwo hundred thirty-four millionfive hundred sixty-seven thousandeight hundred and ninety

2、小数:小数点前按整数方式读,小数点后一位一位地读。如12345. 6789 读作twelve thousand three hundred forty-five point six seven eight nine

3、分数:分子基数词,分母序数词,分子大于“1”,分母加“-s”。如: 2/5读作two fifths; 3/10读作three tenths; 1/5读作a (one) fifth。特殊表示:1/2: a half; 1/4: a quarter; 1%: one percent (per cent); 20%: twenty percent

三、编号表示法:

1、常用基数词表示顺序,或较长顺序。如:Page 124:第124; Room 310310房间;Telephone Number 4222793:电话号码2793Lesson 1:第一课;Bus No. 10:第10路公共汽车;No. 1 Middle school第一中学

2、序数词表示顺序。如:the first lesson=Lesson 1第一课

四、倍数表示法:twice表示两倍,两倍以上用“基数词 + times”表示。有三种句型结构:①……times theof;②……times+比较级+than;③……timesasas,注意句型之间的转换。如:

Their school is three times as big as ours.

=Their school is three times the size of ours.

=Their school is twice bigger than ours.他们的学校比我们的大两倍。

I have three times as many books as he.我的书是他的三倍。

The dress costs three times as much as that one.这件衣服的价钱是那件衣服的三倍。

The price sounds reasonableI would gladly have paid three times more than he asked. 价格听起来很合理,我很愿意按他喊价的四倍付钱。

I have twice as many pictures as he.我的图画是他的两倍多。

五、注意下列词语的单复数表示法:

1hundredthousandmillionbillion

1)数词+单数+名词,用来表示确切数目。如:five hundred dollars五佰美元

2)复数+of,用来表示笼统的数目:hundreds/thousands/millions of; thousands and millions of; tens of thousands of

2dozenscore

1)数词+单数+名词,用来表示确切数目。如:

I want to buy three dozen eggs. 我要买三打鸡蛋。

2)复数+of,用来表示笼统的数目。如:

There were scores/dozens of eggs in the basket. 篮子里有许多鸡蛋。

3)数词+单数+of+限定词+名词复数,用来表示特定的范围内的多少。如:

The teacher bought two dozen of these copybooks for his pupils. 老师给他的学生买来了两打这样习字帖。

4)注意特殊形式:

a score of=scores of二十来个、很多;

two score of people 四十来人;

three score and ten people七十人;

some dozen people 一打左右的人;

scores of people许多人

3、年代、年龄表达法:

in the 1990s/1990’s 在二十世纪九十年代;

in his twenties在他二十几岁时

4、前置修饰与后置修饰:

a five-year-old boy=a boy of five一个五岁的男孩;

a four-hundred-word composition=a composition with 400 words一篇四百字的作文;

an 80-foot-high tower=a tower 80 feet high一座八十英尺高的塔

六、运算表达法:

2 + 3 = 5 Two plus three is / makes /equals / is equal to five.

8 – 3 = 5 Eight minus three is five.

3×3 = 9 Three times three is nine.

8÷2 = 4 Eight divided by two is four.

问句:2 + 3 =? How much is two plus three?

七、书写习惯:

1、一两位数的数字一般拼写出来,较长数字用阿拉伯数字表示。

2、除年月日外,在一个句子中,数字要么全用阿拉伯数字表示,要么全用数字表示,不要混合使用。如:I am 24 and my sister is sixteen. (×)

3、位于句首的数字一般要拼写出来。如:

Two hundred and sixty people were killed during the battle. 260个人在战争中遇害。

八、数词的作用:基数词和序数词相当于名词和形容词,它们在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语和同位语。如:

Two were late yesterday. 昨天有两个人迟到。(主语)

The second is bigger than the first. 2个比第1个大。(主语)

I’m eighteen. 我十八岁。(表语)

He was the first to arrive here. 他是第一个到达这里的。(表语)

Give me four. 给我4个。(宾语)

I like the fourth. 我喜欢第四个。(宾语)

We have six subjects this term. 这个学期我们有6门功课。(定语)

The sixth blind man went forward to feel the elephant. 第六个盲人走上前去摸大象。(定语)

We two have been to Beijing. 我们俩去过北京。(主语同位语)

I want the big onethe first on the right. 我要那个大的,右边第一个。(宾语同位语)

 

高考试题归类

1. We are going to learn ____ next week. 1982

       A. Lesson Twelve    B. Lesson Twelfth

C. Twelfth Lesson          D. The Lesson Twelfth

2. About ____ of the workers in that steel works are young people. 1983

       A. third-fifths        B. three-fifths        C. three-fives         D. three-fifth

3. The farmer has raised ____ of ____ of ____ on his farm. 1985

      A. hundred; head; cattle         B. hundreds; head; cattle

C. hundred; heads; cattle       D. hundreds; heads; cattles

4. Two ____ died of cold last winter. 1988

       A. hundreds old people           B. hundred old people   

C. hundreds old peoples         D. hundred old peoples

5. The hero of the story is an artist in his ____ . 1991

       A. thirtieth            B. thirty   C. thirty'sD. thirties

6. Shortly after the accidenttwo ____ police were sent to the spot to keep order. 1992

       A. dozen of           B. dozens C. dozen   D. dozens of

7. He did it ____ it took me. 【京2003

       A. one-third a time  B. one-third time    C. the one-third time D. one-third the time

 

能力过关检测

1. He is a student of ____.

       A. Class Second     B. the Class Two    C. Class Two  D. Second Class

2. He wrote a ____ composition.

       A. two-thousand-words         B. two-thousand-word

C. two-thousands-word         D. two-thousands-words

3. About ____ of the workers in that steel works are young people.

       A. third-fifths         B. three-fifths        C. three-fives         D. three-fifth

4. He began to write poems in his ____.

       A. thirtiethB. thirty    C. thirty’s D. thirties

5. When is your birthday?

It’s on Saturday____.

    A. third March   B. the third of March

C. three March       D. the three of March

6. ____ of the students in our class are from the south.

       A. Two-nineth        B. Two-ninth         C. Two-ninths D. Two-nineths

7. I’ve told him ____.

       A. a hundred time     B. hundred times

       C. hundred of times         D. hundreds of times

8. They have been in the reading-room since ____.

       A. a long time        B. it had been open C. eight o’clock     D. two hours

9. I’ll never give up not even on ____ try.

       A. the 1,000 or 10,000           B. the 1,000 and 10,000

C. the 1,000th or 10,000th     D. the 1,000th and 10,000th

10. Do you know when ____ broke out?

       A. Second World War            B. the Second World War

C. World War Second            D. the World War Two

11. The price was reduced ____.

       A. by 20 percents B. by 20 percent     C. by percent of 20       D. on 20 percent

12. This map is ____ small as that one.

       A. half as  B. as half  C. two-ninth as      D. two as

13. Ask him to give me ____.

       A. the twoB. the second         C. the two one D. the second one

14. By 8:00____ people had arrivedafter a while ____ got there.

       A. forty; forty-first  B. eight; ninth

C. eleven; a twelfth   D. nineteen; a twenty

15. There will be more than 3 ____ students taking part in the sports meet.

       A. hundred            B. hundreds           C. hundreds of        D. hundred of

16. ____ of the magazines ____ borrowed from the reading-room.

       A. Two-five; is       B. Two-fifth; is      C. Two-fifths; are         D. Two-fifths; is

17. A nucleus(原子核) is about ____ of an atom(原子).

       A. one million the size            B. one millionth the size

C. one million of       D. a million of

18. 9 ____ 3 is three.

       A. divides by   B. divided by   C. is divided by      D. divided into

19. You’ll get ____ going and none will be left at home.

       A. three of them     B. three them         C. the three of them D. some of them

20. Flight BA 123 to Vienna is now boarding at ____.

       A. Gate 21B. 21st Gate           C. the Gate 21        D. 21 Gate

21. Bill bought three books____ in Japanese____ in French and ____ in Chinese.

       A. the first; the other; the thirdB. one; the other; a third

       C. one; another; the third        D. one; the other; another

22. According to a new surveyunemployment was at 6. 2%half that in France____ Germany.

       A. a third fewer thanB. third less than

       C. a third less than    D. a third under

23. He failed once. Then he tried____ time.

       A. two     B. the second         C. a second           D. seconds

24. My father served in the army in ____ when he was in____.

       A. 1950’s; twenties   B. the 1950’s; his twenties

       C. the 1950’s; the twenties     D. 1950’s; the twenties

25. You can’t imagine that rats eat 40 to 50 times ____.

       A. in weight           B. by weight          C. of weight          D. their weight

 

答案:

高考试题归类:ABBBD  CD

能力过关检测:CBBDB  CDCCB  BADCA  CBBCA  CDCBD

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案