GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

基础知识解析

一、连词的定义:用来连接词、短语、从句与句子的词叫连词。连词是一种虚词,在句子中不重读,不能独立充当句子成分。根据在句子中的作用,连词分为并列连词和从属连词两大类。

二、 并列连词:

1、表示联合关系的连词有and(和); neither. . . nor. . . (既不……也不……); not only. . . but also. . . (不但……而且……); both. . . and. . . (既……又……); as well as(除……外,……也……)等。如:

Men and womenold and youngall joined in the battle. 男女老少都参加了战斗。

Altogether there are more than 500 different kinds of bambooand some grow no higher than your ankles. 总共有500多种不同的竹子,而某些竹子长得只有你脚踝那么高。

She could neither speak the language nor write it. 这种语言她既不会说也不会写。

You don’t know his addressneither do I. 你不知道他的地址,我也不知道。

We should not only be boldbut also be cautious. 我们不仅要大胆,而且要谨慎。

Not only was everything he had taken away from himbut also his German citizenship. 不仅他所有的一切都被没收或撤消了,而且连他的德国公民权(国籍)也被剥夺了。

A man should have both courage and perseverance. 一个人既应有勇气,也要有毅力。

I have read one of his novels as well as a few of is plays. 我念过他的一本小说和他的几个剧本。

2、表示转折关系的连词有but(可是,但是),yet(可是),however(然而,但是),while(而,然而),still(但是,然而)等。如:

He tried hard but he was unsuccessful. 他做了很大的努力但没有成功。

We have studied English for only a yearyet we can act English plays already. 我们才学了一年英语,但已经能够演英文剧了。

I'd like to go with youhowevermy hands are full. 我很想和你一块去,可是我忙不过来。

He is shortwhile his brother is tall. 他个子矮而他兄弟个子高。

The pain was badstill he did not complain. 他痛得历害,可是并不呻吟。

3、表示因果关系的连词有for(因为),so(结果)等。如:

I must be off nowfor my sister is expecting me. 我得走了,因为我姐姐在等我。

It was already rather lateso we decided to go home. 已经相当晚了,所以我们决定回家。

〖注〗then(那么,因而),thus(因而),therefore(因此,所以)等词也表示因果关系,但它们是副词!如:

He was busytherefore he could not come. 他忙,所以不能来。

You are in the righttherefore we should support you. 你是对的,所以我们应当支持你。

He studied hardthus he got a full mark. 他很用功,因而得了满分。

Come closerthen I won’t have to shout. 走近一点,以免我拉大嗓门说话。

4、表示选择关系的连词有or(或),either. . . or. . . (或……或……,不是……就是……),or else(否则),otherwise(要不然),rather than(而不,也不)等。如:

You may do it yourselfor ask someone else to do it. 你可以自己做或是请别人做。

Now I must go or I shall be late for the party. 我现在得走了,否则晚会我就要迟到了。

You may either stay here or go with us. 你呆在这里可以,跟我们去也可以。

Either you must improve your work or we shall dismiss you. 要么你改进工作,要么我们就辞退你。

He went rather than stay as an unwelcome guest. 他走了,不愿呆着做个不受欢迎的人。

Seize the chanceotherwise / or else you’ll regret it. 抓住机会,否则你会后悔的。

〖注〗otherwiseor else常用在祈使句后面。

三、从属连词:

1、引起状语从句:时间(whenwhileasafterbeforesinceuntiltillas soon asonce; 原因(becauseassince; 条件(ifeven ifunlesssupposeas long as; 让步(althoughthough; 比较(thanas. . . asas; 目的(so thatin order that; 结果(so. . . thatsuch. . . that)。(详细用法参见第十六章——复合句)

2、引起名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从名和同位语从句):连接词(thatifwhether; 连接代词(whowhomwhosewhichwhat; 连接副词(whenwherehowwhy)。(详细用法参见第十六章——复合句)

四、注意部分连词的用法:

1as/likeas+句子,as为连词;like+词组,like为介词。如:

The work is not so easy as you imagine. 这工作不象你想象的那么简单。

John is very healthyas is his sister. 约翰的身体很健康,他的妹妹也一样。

It look like rain. 好像要下雨了。

Bamboo looks more like a tree. 竹子看上去更像树。

state the facts as they are如实地陈述事实;

regard/consider/look on/treat as把……当作……;act as当……

2if如果/even if即使,引导条件状语从句。如:

We won’t give up even if we should fail ten times. 即使我们失败十次,我们也不会放弃的。

3although/though虽然/even though 即使,引导让步状语从句;as引导让步状语从句要倒装,即把从句中的表语、状语或动词原形放在as之前。如:

Cold as it was=Though it was cold),he went on working. 尽管天气冷,可他仍继续工作。

Child as he is=Though he is a child),he knows a lot. 虽然他还是个孩子,可懂得很多事情。

Try as he might=Though he might try),he couldn’t get rid of the difficulty. 不管怎样努力,他还是摆脱不了困难。

4so that 以便、以致于,不放句首;in order that 可放句首;so as to do sth. 不放句首;in order to do sth. 可放于句首。

5now that=since 既然,只放于句首。

6such as /for example /for instance 例如

7no matter what引导状语从句,whatever既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导状语从句

8before long(不久)/long before(很久以前)/It is not long before. . . (不久……)

9while(一面…一面)引导时间状语从句的谓语动词只能是持续性的;when(当……时候)引导时间状语从句的谓语动词既可以是持续性的,也可以是非持续性的。as(正当……时候)强调动作的同时性。如:

He kept silent while I was writing. 我写作的时候,他一直保持沉默。

When she came yesterdayI was reading a novel. 他昨天来的时候,我正在读一本小说。

I read the book as I walked along.我边走边看书。

He was doing his homework when I came in. 他进来时,他正在做家庭作业。

I came in when (while) he was doing his homework. 当他在做家庭作业时,我走了进来。

While(When) I was in the townI saw him twice. (当)我在城里时,见过他两次。

Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。

He was playing football outside when it began to rain. 他正在外面踢足球,这时开始下起雨来。

10if/whether:

1ifwhether都用来引导宾语从句,但宾语从句前置于句首时,用whether而不用if;宾语从句为否定句时,通常用if而不用whether。如:

I wonder if / whether you can examine him now. 不知你现在是否可以给他检查一下。

Whether it is true or notI can’t say. 这是不是真的,我不敢说。

I asked her if he wouldn’t come. 我问她他是不是会来。

2)引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句或与or not连用,不定式之前,某些动词之后,在介词后的宾语从句等常用whether。如:

Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 一切都取决于我们是否有足够的钱。

They discussed whether they should help her. 他们商议他们该不该帮助她。

Whether he will come or not is unknown. 他来不来还不知道。

The question is whether it is worth doing. 问题是这事是否值得一做。

I have no idea whether he is there. 我不知道他是否在那。

She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 她还没有决定是去还是不去。

11as well/as well as:

1A as well as B=not only B but also A。如:

He as well as I agree with you. =Not only I but also he agrees with you. 我仅我同意你所说的,他也同意。

2as well=too,常与andbut连用,置于句末。如:

I bought a piano as well=I bought a pianotoo. 我也买了一台钢琴。

He gave me money as well as advice. 他除了给我忠告外,还给我钱。

=He gave me adviceand money as well. 他给我忠告,并给我钱。

We shall travel by night as well as by day. 我们将日夜赶路。

He has knowledgeand experience as well. =He has experience as well as knowledge. 他不仅有知识,而且也有实践经验。

Give me those as well. 把那些也给我。

〖注〗不作连词,as well as=as good as,表示“和……一样好。”(welladv. )如:

Tom can do it as well as Mary. 这事汤姆和玛丽做干得一样好。

John plays football as well asif not better thanDavid. 约翰踢足球如果不比大卫更好,也和他差不多。

比较:I shall not see the film as well as he. 他将去看电影,而我不去。

I as well as heshall not see the film. 他不去看电影,我也不去。

12so…that/too…to…表示结果。如:

He was so excited that he couldn't speak a single word. =He was too excited to speak a single word. 他太兴奋了,一句话也说不出来。

He was so strong that he can lift the large stone. =He was strong enough to lift the large stone. 他很强壮,足以举起这块大石头。

13、“一……就……”的几种表达法:

As soon as I entered the classroomhe left.

=Hardly had I entered the classroom when he left.

=No sooner had I entered the classroom film than he left. 我一走进教室,他就离开了。

14although/but; since/because/so; no matter how/so 不能并列使用。unless/ifor不能并用

15、复合句中,汉语常常名词在前,代词在后,而英语中名词常用于主句中,代词常用于从句中。如:If he has some questionsTom usually asks me. 如果汤姆有问题,会问我的。

 

高考试题归类

(参见第十五章——并列句:高考试题;第十六章——复合句:高考试题。)

 

能力过关检测

1. ____ his speech was a long onenobody lost interest.

A. As         B. Because  C. Even      D. Though

2. She thought I was talking about her daughter____in factI was talking about my daughter.

       A. whom    B. where    C. which    D. while

3. ____ we’ll go fishing tomorrow depends on the weather.

       A. If      B. Whether C. That      D. Where

4. The reason for his absence is ____ he was ill.

       A. that        B. why       C. because         D. for

5. Speak slowly ____ everybody can hear you clearly.

       A. since      B. so that    C. for     D. because

6. It will not be long ____ he comes back.

       A. before    B. after       C. when D. until

7. Be careful____ you’ll make spelling mistakes.

       A. ifB. and        C. but    D. or

8. Study hard____ you’ll make great progress.

       A. or          B. and        C. while D. but

9. I don’t like running ____ climbing.

I don’t like running____I like climbing very much.

A. and; and B. and; but  C. or; but      D. or; and

10. The day broke____the birds were beginning to sing.

       A. since      B. as      C. because D. for

11. We had better hurry ____ it is getting dark.

       A. and        B. but         C. as      D. unless

12. He has no idea ____ far the airport is from here.

       A. what      B. how       C. it’s         D. that

13. You’ll pass the exam ____ you study with a strong will.

       A. unless    B. until       C. as long as          D. as well as

14. What he said is strange____ it is true.

       A. but and         B. and but          C. yet and          D. and yet

15. Time passed quickly and three weeks went by ____ we knew it.

       A. before    B. after       C. when     D. till

16. We won’t give up ____ we should fail ten times.

       A. even if          B. since      C. whether D. until

17. ____ far away you areyou are always in our thoughts.

       A. Even though      B. Not with standing C. No matter how       D. In spite of

18. The roof fell ____ he had time to dash into the room to save his baby.

       A. after      B. as      C. beforeD. until

19. Young____ he ishe knows how to use a computer.

       A. though   B. if       C. as      D. even if

20. Everything depends on ____ we can help him.

       A. ifB. whether         C. so that      D. so

21. Jack was very tired ____ he played tennis all afternoon.

       A. ifB. as soon as     C. because         D. before

22. I often visited the British Museum ____ I was staying in London.

       A. until       B. while  C. duringD. throughout

23. I’ll wait here until 6:00so ____ here by then.

       A. try and be          B. trying to get   C. you to come  D. to be sure to reach

24. ____ several timesbut he still doesn’t know how to do it.

       A. Being shown      B. Having shownC. Having been shown   D. I have shown him

25. Jack was going to be late ____ his boss wasn’t going to be pleased.

       A. as          B. and    C. or      D. but

26. The fuel must have been finished____ the machine didn’t work.

       A. as         B. since C. for    D. because

27. There is no doubt that he is a good professor____ he is doing fine.

       A. but        B. for     C. so      D. yet

28. Would you like a cup of tea ____ shall we get down to business right away?

       A. or          B. then   C. and    D. otherwise

29. ____ I admire that artist’s workI don’t like him personally.

       A. While     B. As      C. Until  D. As long as

30. Their father was not together with thembut they knew____ thought that he was on the same train.

       A. or         B. or rather       C. as well as     D. and

31. Some people waste a lot of food____ others haven’t enough to eat.

       A. however B. when C. as      D. while

32. OhJaneour flight has been called three times so far. Have you heard it?

Yes____ take your timeJack. I insist that we stay for another round.

A. so          B. and        C. but    D. yet

33. — Do you still think in Chinese when you’re speaking English?

 — Yes____ I’m trying to think in English.

      A. and       B. so      C. for         D. but

34. It was an exciting moment for us football fans____ it was the first time in years our national team entered the World Cup.

       A. but        B. while      C. which    D. for

35. It is the prevention of disease____ the successful treatment that has led the rapid increase of the world’s population.

       A. less than B. rather than         C. more than          D. better than

36. In no country____ Britainit has been saidcan one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.

       A. rather than    B. other than         C. except for         D. more than

 

Key:    DDBAB ADBCD CBCDA ACCCB CBADB CBAAB

DCDDB B

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案