GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

主谓一致

基础知识解析

主谓一致的概念:英语中的谓语形式随主语的人称、数以及动作的时态、语态的变化而发生变化,即谓语动词必须与主语保持人称和数的一致,以便于协调交际。这种语法现象叫做主谓一致。一般分为语法一致、意义一致和就近一致三种情况以及一些特殊表达方式等。

一、语法一致

1、如果主语后面跟有butbesidesas well asno less thanrather thanwithalong withtogether withlikeunlikeincluding等带其它名词起连接作用时,谓语动词应在人称和数上与主语中心词(即前面的词)一致。如:

Jane with her two brothers was seen playing chess in the room. 当时看见简和她的两个弟弟正在房间里下棋。

Nobody but Tom and Jack knows the secret. 只有汤姆知道这个秘密。

She as well as the other students has learned how to type. 她和其他学生一样,也学会了如何打字。

A professortogether with some studentswas moving into a new laboratory. 教授和几个学生同时搬到新实验室里去了。

2someanyeveryno构成的复合代词及no oneenougheacheitherneither作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

Somebody is waiting for you downstairs. 有人在楼下等你。

Enough has been done to prevent it from happening. 已经采取了足够的措施来防止这事的发生。

Each of us has read the book. 我们每个人都已看过这本书。

Neither of them is interested in English. 他们俩人都对英语不感兴趣。

Either of the stories is interesting. 这两个故事中的任何一个都有趣。

Neither of the books is very interesting. 两本书没有一本有趣。

I don't think either of them is at home. 我以为他们俩人都不在家。

Has either of your parents visited you? 你的父母亲来看过你吗?

Neither of them wants to see you. 他们俩都不想见你。

Nobody wants to go there. 没有人愿意去那里。

〖注〗none作主语指不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式;表示人或物的复数名词时,谓语单、复数均可。如:

None of us has / have heard of it. 我们没有一个人听说过这事。

None has / have been found. 一个也没找到。

None of the money in the pocket is his. 袋里的钱没有一点儿是他的。

3、由noeachanyeverymany aeitherneithereach. . . and each. . . more than one…every. . . and every. . . 加名词用作主语,尽管意义有些为复数,谓语都用单数。但no. . . and no. . . 接单数名词,谓语用单数,如接复数,谓语用复数。如:

Every boy and every girl knows that each day and each hour brings its duty. 每个男女生都知道每日每时都有该做的事情。

More than one scientist is going to be present at the meeting to be held. 不只一位科学家将要出席即将举行的会议。

Many a man does not see the importance of home education for children. 很多人都没有明白孩子家庭教育的重要性。

Every man and woman attends the meeting. 男的、女的都参加这个会。

Many a student and teacher is watching the football match. 许多学生和老师正在观看足球比赛。

4、如果主语是否定与肯定组合而成时,则谓语与肯定的一致。如:

Not you but he (Henot you) has been chosen to do so. 不是你而是他被选来做这事。

It's not you but she (It's shenot you) that is wrong. 错的是他而不是你。

5it引导的强调句型结构中,无论所强调的是单数还是复数,都应用It is /was,如强调的是主语,that/who 之后的谓语要与主语一致。如:

It's those girls that (who) have made so many mistakes. 是那些姑娘们出了那么多的差错。

It's I who am a student. 是学生的人是我。

6、有些集体名词作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,则用单数;若就其中各个成员来考虑,谓语动词则用复数。如fruitluggageclasspolicegovernmentfamilyteamgroupaudiencecrowdpopulationmathematics等。但cattlepolicesheepdeer几乎总是被看成复数。如:

His family lives on Beijing Road. 他家住在北京路。

His family are fond of music. 他们一家人都喜欢音乐。

The cattle are grazing. 牛正在吃草。

〖注〗clothesgoodstrousersremainsglassesthankswages等词一般只能用作复数。

7、当townschoolvillage等分别表示部称的“镇民、全校师生、村民”时,谓语动词可以用单数,也可以用复数。有时可用the或加形容词whole修饰。如:

The whole school were/was sorry when she left.当她离开时,全校都感到难过。

The whole town is/are in agreement about the plan.全镇居民都同意这个计划。

8、特例:

This kind of men is dangerous. 这种类型的男人是很危险的。

Men of this kind are dangerous. 这种类型的男人是很危险的。

There are many kinds of apples. 这儿有很多种苹果。

My glasses have been broken into pieces. 我的眼镜摔成了碎片。

One and a half bananas is left on the table. 还剩了一个半香蕉在桌上。(习惯上用单数)

二、意义一致:

有时主语是单数形式,但其意义为复数形式; 有时主语是复数形式,其意义却为单数,且谓语要用单数形式。

1、形式上复数,意义上为单数形式的词有:newsmathematicsphysicspolitics等。meansworks可根据谓语是单复数来判断其主语所表示的事物是单数还是复数。如:

The steel works was built in the 1950s. 这个钢厂是50年代建的。

The steel works in the country produce more steel than those in that country. 这个国家的钢厂比那个国家的钢厂生产的钢要多。

2、形式是单数,意义为复数的词有:peoplepolicecattle等。如:

The police are searching for the missing car. 警察正在搜查那辆失窃的小车。

The people in the city are very friendly. 那个城市的人很友好。

The cattle are grazing near the river. 牛正在河边吃草。

3、代词whatwhowhichanyallmostmorehalf等作主语时,谓语动词用单数还是复数主要取决于它们所代替的意义。如:

What is wrong with you?你怎么了?

There are some books on the desk. What are the names of them?桌子上有一些书。书名叫什么?

He who laughs the last laughs the best. 谁笑在最后,谁笑得最好。

All of the students have seen the film. 所有的学生都看过这部电影。

All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的不全是金子。

4what 为从句的主语,表示多数意义时,谓语用复数;若表示单数意义,谓语则用单数。the rest ofall oftwo-thirds ofhalf ofmost ofa lot oflots ofninety percent ofplenty ofpart of等用作主语时,谓语动词与介词of后面的名词保持一致。如:

What he said is about the building of our library. 他所讲的是关于修建我们图书馆的事。

What he gave me are some books. 他所给我的是一些书。

The rest of the lecture is not interesting. 演讲的其余部分没有趣。

The rest of the bicycles are on sale today. 其余的自行车今天出售。

About 90 percent of the students are good and part of them are interested in history. 约百分之九十的学生都很优秀,他们当中的一部分对历史感兴趣。

Three-fourths of the earth's surface is covered with water. 地球表面有四分之三覆盖着水。

注意区别a number of(很多)和the number of(……的数量):

A number of students are still in the lab. 很多学生还在实验室里。

The number of the students is increasing very fast. 学生的数量正在快速增长。

5、表示一段时间,一笔金钱,一段距离、重量、数量、数学算式等方面的复数名词与数词连用,从整体上,用单数形式,从个体上看,用复数形式。如:

Ten dollars is not enough. 十美元不够。

Three plus three is six. 三加三等于六。

There are two glasses of coffee on the table. 桌上有两杯咖啡。

Five years have passed since she went to America. 自从她去了美国以后已经过了五年。

Five years is too long a time for her. 对于她来说五年的时间太长了。

〖注〗Two and three is/are five. =Two and three make five. 二加三等于五。

6both. . . and. . . . . . and. . . 连接的是两个或两个以上的人或物时,需用复数谓语动词。如:

Both rice and wheat are grown well here. 这里的稻谷和小麦长得好。

The doctor and the nurse are working in that room. 医护人员正在那间屋子里工作。

但当. . . and. . . 连接的两个名词指的是同一概念时,谓语则用单数。如:

The singer and dancer over there is my old friend. 那边那位歌舞演员是我的老朋友。

The poet and writer is gone. 那位诗作家去世了。

但:The boy and girl are there. 那个男孩和女孩在那儿。

7、定冠词加形容词或过去分词指人时谓语用复数,指物时一般用单数谓语形式。如:

The rich are not always happy. 富人并不总是很快活。

The injured have been taken to hospital. 伤员已被送往医院。

The good in him outweighs the bad. 他身上的优点多过缺点。

8、一个单数数同时被两个不同的形容词修饰表示两个不同的事物或概念时,谓语动词一般用复数。如:

Ancient and modern history are the subjects we are studying.古代史和现代史是我们目前学习的课程。

但如果表示的是同一概念时应用单数。如:

The last and most difficult lesson is Lesson 14.最后一课即最难的一课是第十四课。

三、就近一致

1、由A or Beither. . . or. . . neither. . . nor. . . not only. . . but also. . . 等关联连词连接的主语,与最近的那个主语保持一致。如:

Are you or she the teacher of English?是你还是他是英语老师?

Neither I nor he is the teacher of English. 我和他都不是英语老师。

Only one or two boys were chosen for Joint School Sports Day last month. 只有一两个男孩被选送参加上个月的联校运动节。

Either he or I am right. 不是他错就是我错了。

Neither the students nor the teacher knows anything about it. 学生们和老师都不知道这件事。

Not only the students but (also) the teacher is active in sports and games. 不但学生,就连老师都积极参加体育活动。

2one of加复数名词如带有thatwho/which引导的定语从句,先行词为此复数形式的名词,因此,动词用复数。如:

One of excuses that were given by the lazy students sounds strange. 那些懒惰的学生所提出的理由之一听起来很奇怪。

David is one of these people who have trouble in making up their minds. 大卫是那些难于下决心的人之一。

但是,在one 前有the onlythe very修饰时,先行词为one,从句的谓语用单数。如:

Tom is the only one of the boys who works hard in the class. 汤姆是班上努力学习的唯一的一个男孩。

This is the only one of these novels that is on sale this season. 这是这个季节出售的唯一的一本小说。

She is the very one of the tailors who is able to make clothes to your own measure. 她正是能给你量体裁衣的唯一的一个裁缝。

3There be结构后接一系列事物时,be的数与邻近的第一个事物的数一致。如:

There is a tabletwo chairs and some books in the room. 房间里有一张桌子,两把椅子和一些书籍。

 

高考试题归类

1. Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another. 1989

A. is          B. are        C. am        D. be

2. A library with five thousand books ____ to the nation as a gift. 1990

A. is offered          B. has offered   C. are offered    D. have offered

3. When and where to build the new factory ____ yet. 1991

A. is not decided    B. are not decided   C. has not decided        D. have not decided

4. The number of people invited ____ fiftybut a number of them ______ absent for different reasons. 1996—14

A. were; was         B. was; was          C. was; were    D. were; were

5. All the preparations for the task ________ and we're ready to start. 2000春—19

A. completed B. complete

C. had been completed D. have been completed

 

能力过关检测

1. The Garth’s familywhich ____ rather a large one____ very fond of their old house.

A. were; were        B. was; were         C. were; was         D. was; was

2. Nothing but cars ____ in the shop.

       A. is sold    B. are sold  C. were sold          D. are going to sell

3. No one except Jack and Tom ____ the answer.

       A. know     B. knows    C. is knowing        D. are knowing

4. Class Four ____ watching the basketball match now.

       A. are         B. isC. has been D. are being

5. ____ of the money ____ used up.

       A. Three-five; are         B. Three-fifths; have been

C. Three-fifths; has been      D. Third-fifth; is

6. The number of the people who ____ cars ____ increasing.

       A. owns; are          B. owns; is C. own; is         D. own; are

7. All but one ____ here just now.

       A. isB. was       C. has been D. were

8. One of Marx’s works ____ written in English in the 1860s.

       A. was       B. were      C. would beD. are

9. A good deal of money ____ spent on books.

       A. have      B. has        C. have been          D. has been

10. On each side of the street ____ a lot of trees.

       A. stands    B. grow      C. is standing         D. are grown

11. We have sold many bicycles of this kind and the rest ____ on sale today.

       A. isB. are         C. has        D. have

12. Some person ____ calling for you at the gate.

       A. isB. are         C. is being  D. will be

13. All that can be eaten ____ eaten up.

       A. has been B. are beingC. had beenD. have been

14. Tom’s teacher and friend ____ Mr. Smith.

       A. are beingB. has        C. are         D. is

15. The police ____ the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre.

       A. is searching for        B. are searching for

       C. were searching for   D. were searching

16. The Arabian Nights(《一千零一夜》) ____well known to English lovers.

       A. isB. were      C. are         D. been

17. About 40 ____ of the population of that country ____ on farms.

       A. percent; lives     B. percent; live   C. percents; live     D. percents; lives

18. Many a student ____ that mistake before.

       A. had made          B. have made         C. has madeD. has been made

19. Peterperhaps John____ playing with his little dog.

       A. isB. are         C. were      D. seems

20. Laying eggs ____ the ant queen’s full-time job.

       A. isB. are         C. were      D. seems

21. The glass works ____ in 1959.

       A. were built          B. were set up        C. were put up   D. was set up

22. The Olympic Games ____ held every four years.

       A. isB. are         C. has        D. have

23. A dozen ____ twelveand two ____ twenty-four.

       A. is; dozen is        B. is; dozens are     C. is; dozen are  D. is; dozens is

24. It was reported that six ____ including a boy.

       A. was killed          B. was killing         C. were killed         D. had killed

25. Deer ____ faster than dogs.

       A. run        B. runs       C. are running        D. will run

26. Steam and ice ____ different forms of water.

       A. isB. are         C. was       D. were

27. The whole class ____ greatly moved at his words.

       A. was       B. isC. had        D. were

28. This kind of cakes ____ good while cakes of that kind ____ different.

       A. taste; areB. tastes; are          C. smell; is D. smells; is

29. Over 80 percent of the population of China ____ peasants.

       A. was       B. isC. are         D. will be

30. There ____ a knife and fork on the table.

       A. seem to be         B. seems to be   C. is seeming to be       D. are

31. I have read a large part of the bookthe rest of which ____ more difficult.

       A. isB. are         C. read       D. is read

32. His family ____ music lovers.

       A. all are     B. are all     C. isD. are being

33. A professor and a writer ____ present at the meeting.

       A. was       B. isC. had beenD. were

34. The pair of shoes ____ worn out.

       A. are         B. have been          C. has been D. had been

35. The majority of the students ____ to the teacher attentively.

       A. are listening   B. is listening         C. are listened        D. is listened

36. My brother and sister each ____ own ideas.

       A. has their B. have his  C. have their          D. has her

37. An iron and steel workswith some satellite factories____ to be built here.

       A. isB. are         C. will be    D. were

38. The students in our school each ____ an English dictionary.

       A. has        B. had        C. have      D. are having

39. More than one answer ____ to the question.

       A. have been given B. has been given   C. were given        D. had given

40. The boy sitting by the window is the only one of the students in our school who____ from the countryside.

       A. are         B. were      C. was       D. is

41. Most of the mistakes ____ because of carelessness.

       A. were made        B. are madeC. has been made D. were making

42. Most of his time ____ in reading novels.

       A. is spent  B. are spentC. were spent        D. was spending

43. The rest of the novel ____ very interesting.

       A. were      B. are         C. isD. seem

44. I know that all ____ getting on well with her.

       A. was       B. were      C. are         D. is

45. When and where this took place ____ still unknown.

       A. are         B. were      C. isD. has

46. Not only the workers but also the machine ____ not there.

       A. are         B. were      C. isD. has

47. Very few ____ his address in the town.

       A. knows          B. know     C. are knowing  D. has known

48. Ten thousand dollars ____ a large sum of money.

       A. are         B. were      C. seem      D. is

49. Twenty miles ____ a long way to cover.

       A. were      B. are         C. isD. seem to be

50. Nine plus three ____ twelve.

       A. makes    B. make      C. is making          D. are making

51. There are two roads and either ____ to the station.

       A. are leading         B. is leadingC. lead       D. leads

52. My father together with some of his old friends____there already.

       A. have been          B. has been C. had beenD. will be

53. My family as well as I ____ glad to see you.

       A. am         B. are         C. isD. were

54. Neither he nor I ____ for the plan.

       A. are         B. isC. am         D. were

55. Failure ____ the mother of success.

       A. are         B. isC. were      D. was

56. Each of the students in our class ____ a copy of English-Chinese dictionary.

       A. have      B. has        C. are         D. is

57. Mathematics ____ the language of science.

       A. are         B. are going to be   C. isD. is going to be

58. All but your brother ____ disappeared.

       A. has        B. have       C. are         D. is

59. Enough ____ on that subject.

       A. have saidB. have been          C. are         D. has been said

60. Every means ____ tried since then.

       A. has been B. have been          C. are         D. is

61. Each man and each woman ____ to help in the work.

       A. is asked  B. are askedC. ask        D. had asked

62. The following ____ some popular songs.

       A. are         B. isC. was       D. were

63. It ____ John and Mary that often ____ me with my English study.

       A. is; helps B. are; help C. is; help          D. are; helps

64. What we need ____ more time.

       A. isB. are         C. was       D. have been

65. The bread and the butter ____ in their shop.

       A. has been sold out B. had been sold out

       C. was sold out        D. were sold out

66. There ____ the last piece of cake and the spoonful of ice cream.

       A. were go B. goes       C. go     D. are going

67. At the bus stop ____ a soldier and two young people on their way to North Carolina.

       A. were      B. was       C. isD. sits and waits

68. To take a walk and to play ping pong ____ beneficial to your health.

       A. isB. are         C. has been to        D. have proved to

69. ____ a hard-working race.

       A. Chinese are        B. Chinese is          C. The Chinese are       D. The Chinese is

70. Planting vegetables ____ constant watering.

       A. need      B. needs     C. are needed         D. is needed

71. He is the very thief that the police ____.

       A. is after          B. are after C. is looking for     D. are looked for

72. John and Mary____ sure to come to our party tonight.

       A. are         B. will be    C. be      D. is

73. Janet as well as the other young people who____ sent abroad by the government____ brought up in the small town.

       A. was; was          B. was; were         C. were; were        D. were; was

74. Two hours ____ a long time ____ a coffee.

       A. are; to take on   B. is; to take over C. is; spent over    D. are; spent on

75. What the teacher and the students want to say ____ either of the countries ____ beautiful.

       A. are; are         B. is; is       C. are; is    D. is; are

76. ____ Mary ____ Sue knows nothing about the matter____ they didn’t come to the school last Friday.

       A. Either; or; because   B. Both; and; as

       C. Neither; nor; since    D. Not only; but; for

77. The education system rather than the teachers ____ to answer for the overburden on the students.

I agree. I hope the reform being carried out in our country at present will be about the____ results.

A. are; desired        B. is; desired          C. are; desiring   D. is; desiring

78. Neither of the young men who had tried to get the job in the company ____.

       A. has been accepted    B. have been accepted

       C. was accepted          D. were accepted

 

答案:

高考试题归类:

BAACD

强化过关检测:    BABAC  CDADB  BAADC  ABCAA  DBACA  BDBCB

ABDCA  CACBD  BACCC  CBDCA  DBBCB  BCBDA

AACAD  CABCB  BADBB  DBC

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案