1、与现在事实相反，条件句谓语用动词过去式（be的过去式一般用were），主句谓语用would(should，could，might) + 动词原形。如：
If I were you，I shouldn't do that. 如果我是你，我是不会那样做的。
We would go with you if we had time. 如果我们有时间，我们就会同你去。
We could ask him if he were here. 如果他在这里我们可以问问他。
If I knew his telephone number，I would ring him up. 如果我知道他的电话号码，我就给他打电话。
2、与过去事实相反，条件句谓语用had+过去分词，主句谓语用would (should，could，might)+ have+过去分词。如：
If he had seen you yesterday，he would have asked you about it. 要是他昨天看见了你，他会问你这事的。
If you had come earlier，you would (might) have met him. 要是你早一点来，你就会（可能）碰到他了。
I should (would) have called you if I had known your telephone number. 要是我有你的电话号码我就给你打电话了。
Nothing could have saved him even if he had been tended without delay. 既使他当时受到了及时的救护，也无法挽救他的生命。
If it should rain，the crops would be saved. 要是下雨，庄稼就得救了。
If it were to snow tomorrow，they would not go out. 要是明天下雪，他们就不出去了。
If it snowed tomorrow，they would not go out. 要是明天下雪，他们就不出去了。
Should there be (=If there should be) a flood，what should we do?万一发生水灾我们怎么办?
Were it not for their help(=If it were not for…)，we couldn't have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们的帮助，这些困难我们是克服不了的。
Had they time (=If they had time)，they would certainly come and help us. 如果他们有时间他们一定会来帮助我们。
The passengers would have died of cold had it not been for the driver (=if it had not been for…). 要不是司机，旅客们就会全部冻死。
Had it not been for the reservoir（=if it had not been for…），we'd never have been able to beat the drought. 如果没有水库我们就绝不能战胜这次干旱。
If he had come yesterday，he would be with us now. 如果他昨天来了，他现在就会和我们在一起。
If I didn't go there today，they wouldn't /couldn't begin the work tomorrow. 如果我今天不去，他们明天就不能开工。
If they came to inspect our school the day after tomorrow，we would be making preparations now. 如果他们后天来校检查，我们现在就应该做准备。
Supposing the weather were bad，where would we go?假如天气不好，我们到哪儿去？
We could have done better under more favorable conditions. 在更有利的条件下我们还可以做得更好些。
That would have been considered miraculous in the past. 这在过去会被认为是奇迹。
He could not have made such great progress without our help. 没有我们的帮助他不可能取得那么大的进步。
He would have given you more help，but he has been so busy. 他本来要多给你一些帮助的，只是他太忙了。
I would have written before，but I have been ill. 本来该早给你写信的，但我生病了。
I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn't have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. 我把头发剪掉卖了，因为不送你一件礼物，我简直过不了圣诞节。
But for the English examination，I would have gone to the concert last Saturday. 要不是英语考试，上星期六我就去听音乐会了。
The gifts to him would have filled a railway car. 给他的礼物可以装满一辆火车车箱。
You should have been here five minutes ago. 你早五分钟来到这儿就好了。
Einstein cared little for money，though he could have been very rich. 尽管爱因斯坦本可以成为非常富有的人，但是他对金钱却不感兴趣。
五、be 型虚拟语气：be型虚拟语气指用“should +动词原形”的形式，should可以省略。常用于下列情况：
The workers demanded that their wages (should) be raised. 工人们要求增加工资。
I'd like to suggest that it was put in the wrong place. 我要提出的是，它放错地方了。
I suggest he (should) bring his friends in. 我坚持要他们把朋友们带来。
They insisted that he (should) obey every command. 他们坚持要他遵守每条命令。
She insisted that she needed no help. 她坚持说她不需要帮助。
It is recommended that the problem not be solved until all the preparations have been made. 有人建议等所有的准备工作做好了再来解决这个问题。
We decided that we should widen the road. 我们决定拓宽这条路。
They preferred that their son should go to college. 他们认为他们的儿子还是去上大学好。
2、用于主句的主语中含有suggestion/proposal，order/decision，request/demand，plan，idea，motion，a shame，a pity，no wonder等词的表语从句、同位主从句中，表示惊奇、可惜、怀疑等。如：
My idea is that we (should) win him over. 我的想法是我们一定要赢他。
The officer made an order that everyone (should) obey his orders. 军官命令说人人都应当服从他的命令。
The teacher put forward a suggestion that all students (should) hand in their exercise books after class. 老师提出建议，要求所有的学生都在下课后交上练习本。
〖注〗a shame，a pity，no wonder后的从句中不省略should：
It is a pity that she should miss such a wonderful film. 真可惜她竟然未看成这么一部精彩的电影。
3、用于It is necessary/important/strange/natural/wonderful that. . . 和It is suggested/ requested/ proposed/arranged/desired/ordered/insisted that. . . 句型中。如：
It is quite natural that he should do it by himself. 他竟然会自己去做是很自然的。
It is a pity that you should have missed such a chance. 很可惜你竟然错过了这么一个机会。
It is desired that we (should) get everything ready by this afternoon. 要求我们下午以前把一切准备好。
4、用于It is (high/about) time that. . . （该是……的时候了）的句型中。（可用be型，也可用were型）。如：
It's time we had lunch. /It's time that we should have lunch.
=It's time for lunch. /It's time for us to have lunch. 是我们吃午饭的时间了。
〖注〗It is time for sb. to do sth. 指该干什么的时候到了；It is time that从句暗指已经晚了。
1、用于wish/would rather/had better后的宾语从句。如：
I wish he had gone to the exhibition. 但愿他已参观展览去了。
I wish you would give her a message for me. 希望你能代我给他捎个口信。
I'd rather you went there instead of Jack. 我宁愿你替杰克到那儿去。
I had better (that) you came yesterday. 我想你昨天来就好了。
I had better (that) you had come that day. 我想那天你来了就好了。
〖注〗①在I wish (that) he/she/it/they句型中，谓语形式用would + 动词原形的形式，表示疑惑、不满或对未来的一种愿望。如：
I wish he would write more often. =I'm sorry he isn't willing to write more often. 他要是多写信就好了。
I wish she would wear a coat today. =I'm sorry she refuses to wear a coat today. 要是她今天穿一件大衣就好了。
I wish they would stop making so much noises. =I am dissatisfied at them making noises. 要是他们停止吵闹就好了。
I wish they would change the menu. =I am tired of eating the dishes. 要是他们改改菜谱就好了。
②在I wish you would的句型中，虽然不带有以上所述强烈的感情色彩，但暗含有埋怨的意思。如：
I wish you would help me. 希望你能帮帮我（暗指你应该经常主动帮助我）。
③I wish you would. 作为一种回答，不含有任何不满的情绪。如：
—Shall I help you check the accounts? ——要不要我帮你查一下账目？
—I wish you would. (=I'd be glad of your help. )——非常高兴你能帮忙。
2、用在由as if/as though引导的表语从句或方式状语从句中，以及由so that/in order that引导的目的状语从句中。in case引起的条件状语从句有时也可用虚拟语气。如：
How wild his white hair looked——as if it had been electrified. 他满头白发，十分凌乱——好像带了电似的。
You speak as though you had seen it with your own eyes. 你讲起来就像是你亲眼所见似的。
The teacher spoke slowly so that the students could (might) hear him clearly. 老师讲得很慢，以便学生能听清楚。
The emperor gave the cheats some gold in order that they might begin their work at once. 皇帝给了两个骗子一些金子，以便他们可以立即开工。
Jim asked slowly as if he had not yet understood that obvious fact even after the harder mental labour. 吉姆慢慢地问，似乎经过最费劲地思索后，还是没有理解这显而易见的事实。
I’ll take my credit card with me in case I decided to buy something when I am out. 我会随身带着信用卡，以方便我外出时可决定买些什么东西。
〖注〗①在look as if和seem as if引起的从句中，如果动作发生的可能性很大或很接近事实，一般用陈述语气。如果明显不属于事实，则用虚拟语气。如：
He looks as if he is from Beijing. 他看起来像个北京人。（接近事实）
It seems as if we'll have to walk home. 看来我们得走回去了。（可能性很大）
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water，it looks as if it were broken. 如果一支铅笔部分放在水里，铅笔看上去像是折断了似的。（不是事实）
I could not move my legs. It was as if they were stuck to the floor. 我迈不动腿，腿似乎粘到地上了。
He acted as if he were an expert. 他表现得好象是一位专家似的。
3、用在It is time that从句中。但在It is time + I/he/she/it 句型中，谓语部分的be不能用were。如：
It's (high) time that we went (should go) home. 是我们回家的时候了。（我们该回家了。）
It is time I was going. 我该走了。
It is high time he was at work. 他该上班了。
4、if only用于句首，有跟 wish 同样的意思，且较 wish 更为生动、夸张。如：
If only we knew where to look for him!要是我们知道到那儿去找他该有多好啊!
If only she had asked someone's advice!要是她向别人讨教了该有多好啊!
"God bless you，"said the priest. “上帝保佑你，”牧师说。
May you both be happy forever!祝二位永远幸福!
May good luck be yours. 祝你顺利。
Long live the people!人民万岁!
May you succeed. / Wish you success. 祝你成功。
1. If there were no subjunctive mood，English ____ much easier. 【1984】
A. will be B. would have been C. could have been D. would be
2. If she had worked harder，she ____. 【1986】
A. would succeed B. had succeeded
C. should succeed D. would have succeeded
3. If my lawyer ____ here last Saturday，he ____ me from going. 【1989】
A. had been；would have preventedB. had been；would prevent
C. were；would prevent D. were；would have prevented
4. —If he ____，he ____ that food.
—Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. 【1993】
A. was warned；would not take B. had been warned；would not have taken
C. would be warned；had not takenD. would have been warned；had not taken
5. I didn't see your sister at the meeting. If she ____，she would have met my brother. 【1994】
A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come
6. You didn’t let me drive. If we ____ in turn，you ____ so tired. 【1996】
A. drove；didn’t getB. drove；wouldn’t
C. were driving；wouldn’t get D. had driven；wouldn’t have got
1. I wish I ____ you yesterday. 【1988】
A. seen B. did see C. had seen D. were to see
2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water，it looks as if it ____. 【1995】
A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken
1. The plant is dead. I ____ it more water. 【1987】
A. will giveB. would have given C. must give D. should have given
2. Without electricity human life ____ quite different today. 【1991】
A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
3. I told Sally how to get here，but perhaps I ____ for her. 【1994】
A. had to write it outB. must have written it out
C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out
4. —I stayed at a hotel while in New York.
—Oh，did you? You ________ with Barbara. 【1998】
A. could have stayedB. could stay
C. would stay D. must have stayed
5. I was really anxious about you. You ____ home without a word. 【2001】
A. mustn’t leave B. needn’t leave
C. couldn’t have left D. shouldn’t have left
1. If the dog hadn’t woken us, we ____ the fire and it ____ the house next door.
A. hadn’t noticed；had spread to B. wouldn’t have noticed；might have spread to
C. wouldn’t notice；would have spread to D. didn’t notice；spread to
2. I wish I ____ to talk this over with Mr. Zhang when he was here last night.
A. had been able B. should be able C. have been able D. were able
3. If you were to do it，the result ____ different.
A. will be B. would beC. should be D. would have been
4. ____ today，he would get there by Saturday.
A. If he leaves B. Was he leaving C. Would he leave D. Were he to leave
5. It was a lovely day yesterday. I wish I ____ at the seaside then.
A. were B. had been C. should be D. should have been
6. It is a great pity that he ____ so careless.
A. was B. will be C. should be D. can be
7. Even if I ____ with you then，I ____ much for you.
A. would be；would not do B. were；should not have done
C. had been；would not do D. had been；should not have done
8. ____ I would not refuse his invitation.
A. Were I you B. If I should be you
C. If I was you D. If I had been you
9. The whole family greeted me as though I ____ a member of the family.
A. am B. were C. would D. should be
10. ____，everything would have been all right.
A. He had been here B. Here he had been
C. Been here he had D. Had he been here
11. ____，man could not live at all.
A. Were it not for the sun B. If it was for the sun
C. Had it not been for the sun D. If it shouldn’t be for the sun
12. Their suggestion that she ____ till next week is reasonable.
A. wait B. are waiting C. will wait D. would wait
13. —The experiment had failed.
—I suggest you ____ again.
A. try B. trying C. will try D. would try
14. We ____ the work on time without your help.
A. hadn’t had finished B. didn’t have finished
C. can’t have finished D. couldn’t have finished
15. If only I ____ as young as you are!
A. be B. am C. were D. being
16. Should it rain，the crops ____.
A. will be saved B. would be saved
C. had been saved D. would have been saved
17. It is important that we ____ wild animals.
A. will protect B. should protect C. shall protect D. are protecting
18. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat，the earth at night ____，too cold for us to live.
A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly
C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
19. ____it rain tomorrow，we would have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge.
A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will
20. The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ____ the rules.
A. obeys B. obey C. will obeyD. would obey
21. The two strangers talked as if they ____ friends for years.
A. should be B. would beC. have been D. had been
22. If it ____ for the snow，we ____ the mountain yesterday.
A. were not；could have climbed B. were not；could climb
C. had not been；could have climbed D. had not been；could climb
23. —You ____ the train；however，you got there a little late.
—Yes，I missed the bus.
A. could catch B. should catch
C. must have caught D. would have caught
24. I wish they ____ that problem again when they ____ tomorrow.
A. will not bring up；will comeB. would not bring up；come
C. would not bring up；would come D. will not bring up；come
25. The order came that the medical supplies ____ to the village soon.
A. would be sent B. should send C. be sent D. must be sent
26. The teacher demanded that the composition ____ before class was over.
A. must finish B. would be finished C. be finished D. must be finished
27. If he ____ to the teacher attentively，he ____ the answer to the problem now.
A. had listened；would have known B. listened；would know
C. listened；would have knownD. had listened；would know
28. Had I known her name，____.
A. I will invite her to lunch B. she will come here
C. she would come hereD. I would have invited her to lunch
29. —I realize that you were driving at 100 mph，don’t you?
—No，officer，I ____. This car can’t do more than 80.
A. cannot be B. may not have been
C. couldn’t have been D. needn’t have been
30. You ____ the washing up. I would have done it for you.
A. needn’t have done B. didn’t need to have done
C. weren’t to D. mustn’t have done
31. You ____ the look on his face when he won the prize.
A. would have seen B. can be seen C. must seeD. should have seen
32. With all the work finished，I ____ to the party last night.
A. must go B. ought to go C. should have gone D. need to go
33. If I ____ out of ink，I would have finished writing the paper.
A. didn’t run B. shouldn’t run C. haven’t run D. hadn’t run
34. If Henry had not pulled his cap low，he ____ by the police.
A. might be recognized B. might have been recognized
C. would have recognized D. was to have been recognized
35. If we had known that she had planned to arrive today，we ____ at the bus station.
A. may have met B. might met C. may met D. might have met
36. He told me how he had given me shelter and protection without which I ____ of hunger.
A. would be died B. would have died C. would die D. will die
37. Were it not for the debts，we ____ all right.
A. would beB. would have been C. were D. are
38. Had electronic computer not been invented，many problems of space flight ____.
A. could not have been solved B. could not be solved
C. can not be solved D. could not have solved
39. —Why didn’t anybody ring me up?
—Sorry，I lose your telephone number，otherwise，I ____ long before.
A. had rung you up B. must have rung you up
C. would have rung you up D. ought have rung you up
40. I would have invited her to the party but I ____ her well.
A. don’t know B. didn’t know C. doesn’t know D. hadn’t known
41. It is necessary that an efficient worker ____ his work on time.
A. finishes B. can finish C. finish D. has finished
42. ____ you succeed in passing the college entrance examination!
A. May B. Can C. Must D. will
43. She couldn’t have answered the question if she ____ a few books on world history.
A. hadn’t read B. haven’t read C. wouldn’t read D. didn’t read
44. I went to the meeting yesterday because I ____ nothing about the discussion without attending it.
A. didn’t know B. would know C. knew D. would have known
45. If she could sew (缝)，she ____ herself a shirt.
A. made B. would have made C. will make D. had made
46. It’s time that you ____ home and I’d rather you ____ again tomorrow.
A. are going；will comeB. go；are coming
C. went；came D. would go；would come
47. It is suggested that the work ____ at once.
A. would start B. should start C. would be started D. should be started
48. How I wish I ____ him yesterday.
A. meet B. met C. have metD. had met
49. I ____ to stay there for one more week，but I changed my mind.
A. hoped B. had hoped C. was hoping D. would hope
50. I was ill that day，otherwise I ____ the sports meet.
A. would take part in B. had taken part in
C. took part in D. would have taken part in
51. The child talks to us as if he ____ a grown-up.
A. isB. will be C. had beenD. were
52. But for the Party，he ____ of hunger 30 years ago.
A. would have died B. must have died C. would die D. died
53. Our former maths teacher died of cancer last term，otherwise he ____.
A. will still workB. should still work
C. would still have worked D. would still be working
54. The soldier died in the hospital. He ____ if the doctor ____ on him two hours earlier.
A. might be saved；operatedB. could be saved；had operated
C. could have been saved；had operated D. had been saved；was operated
55. ____ we would still be leading a hard life.
A. Had China been liberated B. Had China not been liberated
C. If China hadn’t liberated D. Had not China been liberated
56. The father insisted his daughter ____ a rich man.
A. would be engaged to B. be engaged to
C. should engage to D. must be engaged to
57. Li Ning acted that way as if he ____a foreigner.
A. isB. should beC. had beenD. were
58. He may even suggest that such a law ____.
A. will be passed B. not be passed
C. would be passed D. mustn’t be passed
59. He didn’t come yesterday，or you ____ him.
A. would see B. were to see C. might have seen D. had seen
60. He ____ the job well，but he ____ so careless.
A. had done；had been B. could do；was
C. could have done；was D. hadn’t done；had been
61. You ____ to the meeting yesterday. What was the reason for your absence?
A. should have come B. would have come
C. cameD. had come
62. She insisted that she ____ ill of him behind him，but he didn’t believe.
A. hadn’t spoken B. shouldn’t speak C. wouldn’t speak D. not speak
63. His silence at the meeting suggested that he ____ to your plan.
A. didn’t agree B. hadn’t agreed C. wouldn’t agree D. shouldn’t agree
64. It was required that each student ____ enough food on the trip.
A. bring B. brought C. would bring D. had better bring
65. The officer gave the order that soldiers ____ to go out at night.
A. shouldn’t allow B. be not allowed C. not be allowed D. mustn’t be allowed
66. The Chairman requested the report ____ by the end of the month.
A. be completed B. should complete C. was completed D. would be completed
67. If you____ hard yesterday，you ____ very tired today.
A. had worked；would have been B. had worked；would be
C. worked；would be D. worked；would have been
68. —Mary looks hot and shy.
—So ____ you if you had a high fever.
A. will B. would C. do D. did
69. If I hadn’t worked hard when I was young, I ____ where I am now.
A. won’t have been B. would be C. hadn’t been D. wouldn’t be
70. She is too slow. She____ pass the test，but she____ too little.
A. would；knew B. will；knows C. would；knows D. will；knew
71. The tourists didn’t stop to rest at each station because it____ them down.
A. had slowed B. would slow C. should have slowed D. would have slowed
72. All the doctors in the hospital insisted that he ____ badly wounded and that he ____ at once.
A. should be；be operated B. were；must be operated on
C. was；should be operated D. was；be operated on
73. What the customers____ from the company is that the goods____ right to their homes.
A. requested，deliver B. demand，be delivered
C. request，should deliver D. demanded，delivered
74. Key European governments insist Iraq’s co-operation （合作）____ good and military action____ to allow inspections to continue.
A. be；be delayed B. is；delay C. should be；be delayed D. is；be delayed
75. Tom insisted what he said ____ true and we insisted that he ____ and have a look.
A. be；should go B. should be；would go C. was；goD. was；would go
76. Now then，children，it’s time you ____.
A. washed and dressed B. are washed and dressed
C. will wash and dress D. were washed and dressed
77. —Look! It looks as if it____ going to rain. We must hurry.
A. was B. isC. were D. will be
78. —Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I ____ your advice.
—Don’t worry. Try again.
A. follow B. would follow C. had followed D. have followed
79. —____ he come to see you?
—Of course，please. And I’d rather he ____ me the truth.
A. Will；inform B. Shall；told C. Should；will say D. Can；spoke
80. How I wish I ____ to repair the watch! I only made it worse.
A. had triedB. hadn’t tried C. have tried D. didn’t try
81. ____，it would be silly to argue any longer.
A. Was that true B. If that was true C. Should that be true D. Could that be true
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