GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

第十二章 非谓语动词

基础知识解析

一、概述非谓语动词包括三类,即:不定式(infinite),分词(participle),和动名词(gerund)。他们都具有动词的性质,所以原属连系动词的非谓语动词,后面可以接表语;原属及物动词的,可以接宾语。原属不及物动词的,可以接状语。由非谓语动词加上其它成分构成的短语,分别叫做动名词短语、分词短语和不定式短语。非谓语动词除具有动词的性质外,还各自具有其它的性质:

1、动名词具有名词的性质。

2、分词分为现在分词和过去分词,具有形容词和副词的性质。

3、不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的性质。

二、非谓语动词的作用

 

主语

表语

宾语

介词宾语

定语

状语

补足语

动名词

 

 

分词

 

 

 

不定式

三、不定式

(一)不定式的构成形式见下表:

 

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

to do

to be done

完成式

to have done

to have been done

进行式

to be doing

/

完成进行式

to have been doing

/

疑问词+不定式:多数疑问词都可以与不定式直接连用。这种形式在句中可以用作主语、宾语和表语。如:

How to make good use of waste is very important. 怎样好好利用废物很重要。

The question is when to hold a meeting. 问题是什么时候开会。

I don’t know what to do. 我不知道该怎么办。

I don't know which book to choose. 我不知道该选哪本书。

He couldn't decide what to do next. 他决定不了下一步怎么办。

Do you know how to get to the station? 你知道到火车站怎么走吗?

I was wondering whether to stay here or not.我不知是留在这儿还是走。

〖注〗①在这种用法中,疑问副词不能用why,需要时可用why引起的从句。如:

Do you know why winter is colder than summer?你知道为何冬天比夏天冷吗?

②在正式英语中,不能单以这种结构来代替一个疑问句。如不能说How to start the machine?应说How shall we start the machine?这台机器怎样发动?

(二)不定式在句子中的作用:

1、作主语

To smoke is a bad habit.吸烟是个坏习惯。

To go to the palace with just a flower is to say “I’m poor. I haven’t got any jewelry. ”如果只戴鲜花到皇宫去,那就等于说“我很穷,我没有珠宝。”

 How to get rid of the pollution is a big problem. 怎样消除污染是个大问题。

〖注〗但常用it作形式主语,而把真正的主语不定式放在句后:

It is the custom to shake hands with people in the office every morning. 每天早晨在办公室与人握手是一种习俗。

It is a pleasure to meet you.见到你很高兴。

It’s not easy to master a foreign language. 要掌握一门外语并不是容易的事。

What fun it is to jump into a pool or lake in summer!在夏天跳进游泳池或湖水里游泳是多么有趣啊!

It is not yet decided when and where to hold the meeting. 何时何地开会还没有决定。

2、作宾语,用在谓语动词或介词后面:

They don’t like to be too close to one another. 他们不愿意相互站得很近。

One should learn to fight hardbut fight fairto win without pride and to lose with grace. 一个人应该学会顽强拼搏,但是要光明正大地比赛,胜不骄,败不馁。

I don’t know how to communicate with foreigners. 我不知道如何与外国人进行交流。

We want to learn some body language. 我们想学习一点身势语。

In one of his booksMarx gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language. 马克思在他的一本书里对如何学外语提出了一些建议。

〖注〗①butexcept后接不定式时,如果前面有与不定式内容有关的动词do,则butexcept后面的不定式省去to。若前面没有do,则保留to

He could do nothing but wait. =He had no choice but to wait. 他除了等待,无事可做。

②有时也用it作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语不定式放在句后:

He thinks it his duty to offer his seat to the old and women carrying babies. 他认为在公共汽车上把座位让给老人和抱孩子的妇女是他的责任。

3、宾语补足语,表示宾语所执行的动作:

Would you like me to do something for you?你需要我帮忙吗?

Body language helps you communicate with foreigners. 身势语有助于你同外国人交际。

〖注〗谓语动词表示使役或知觉意义时,作宾语补足语的不定式不带to

He asked me to lend him a dictionary. 他要我借一本词典给他。

They have warned us to be careful of rats. 他们已经警告我们要提防老鼠。

They don’t allow people to smoke.他们不允许人们抽烟。

Did you notice anyone come in?你注意到有什么人进来吗?

Young people like to watch others play football.年轻人喜欢看别人踢足球。

I’ll have Xiao Li repair the radio for you.我叫小李给你修收音机。

They saw the boy fall suddenly from the tree.他们看见那孩子突然从树上跌下来。

4、作表语,【1】一般表示主语的具体内容:

Disney’s greatest wish was to be a famous artist. 迪斯尼最大的愿望就是做一个著名的艺术家。

The most important thing now is to save the soldier’s life. 现在最重要的事情就是抢救这位战士的生命。

His job today is to be a guide for those foreign tourists. 他今天的工作就是给那些外国游客当向导。

Waving one’s hand is to say “Goodbye”. 摇手是表示“再见”。

Our work is to clean the windows. 我们的任务是擦窗户。

The most important thing at present is to improve your ability of hearing and speaking English. 目前最重要的是提高你们听说英语的能力。

〖注〗如果主语部分有个表示不定式动作内容的do,用作表语的不定式可以省略to

What I need most now is to have a good rest. (无do)现在我最需要的是好好休息。

His father’s job is to teach Chinese in a middle school. (无do)他父亲的工作是在一所中学里教汉语。

All you have to do is (to) press the button. 你要做的只是按一下按钮。

The only thing I can do is (to) give you as much help as I can. 我能做的唯一的事是尽可能多地给你帮助。

2】表示预先安排好的计划或约定要做事事或某事不可避免地将要发生。如:

We are to go to Beijing next month. 我们打算下月去北京。

The meeting was to be held the following week. 会议安排在下周召开。

On the subject of readingFrancis Baconwho lived at about the same time as Shakespearewrote these words“Some books are to be tastedothers to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested. ”关于阅读的话题,与莎士比亚差不多同时代的弗朗西斯·培根写过这样的话:“有些书可供品尝,有些书可供吞食,还有一些少量的书可供咀嚼和消化。”

This experience was to change his life. 这个经历后来改变了他的道路。

The manager is to visit our factory next week. 经理将于下周来我厂参观。

She was to meet Mary at the entrance of the theatre. 她曾经打算在剧院门口会见玛丽。

They said goodbyenot knowing that they were never to meet again. 他们道别了,但是他们不知道他们将永别了。

We were sure that he was to become a very important person. 我们当时确信他以后肯定会成为一位重要人物。

When we said good-byeI thought it was for ever. But we were to meet againmany years laterunder very strange circumstances. 在我们告别的时候,我觉得以后不会再见了。可是命不该如此,许多年以后,在一个很不寻常的场合又会面了。

The train is to arrive in Beijing at 10:25 a. m. 这趟火车将于上午10:25到达北京。

I'm to meet Mr. Brown at eleven o'clock this morning. 我要在今天上午十一点钟见布朗先生。

The exhibition is to start in a week's time. 展览会将在一周后开幕。

There is to be a concert on Sunday evening. 星期日晚上将有一场音乐会。

The Queen is to visit Japan next year. 女王将于明年访问日本。

〖注〗如果用不定式的完成式,则是一种虚拟语气,表示该事本该发生,但实际上并没发生:

I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time. 我感到紧张,因为我很快就要离开家了,这是我第一次离家。

I was to have phoned you last weekbut I was too busy. (should have phoned)我本打算上周打电话给你,但我太忙了。

3】用于第二人称,含有转达别人指示、警告、父母让子女做事情或上级要下级去干某事的意思:

You are to go to the hotel where rooms have already been booked for you. 你们就去旅馆,房间已经给你们订好了。

You are to meet at the station at noon. 中午你们要在车站碰头。

You are to finish your work before school is over. 放学前你们必须完成作业。

You are to finish your homework before you watch TV. 你得做完了家庭作业才能看电视。

Tell her she is not to be back late. 告诉她,不能晚回来。

You are not to walk on the grass. 不许践踏草坪。

You are to be punished if you do like that. 你那样做就会受到惩罚。

4】用于第三人称,表示指示、通知、命令、注意事项或注定将会怎么样:

As early as his second filmChaplin had developed his own manner of actingthe one that was to become world-famous. 早在他拍第二部影片的时候,卓别林就形成了自己的表演风格,后来闻名于世界的就是那种风格。

The room is to be cleaned. 这间屋子要打扫。

He was later to regret his decision. 他以后会后悔做出这个决定的。

No one is to leave the room without permission. 未经允许,任何人不得擅自离开这个房间。

〖注〗该不定式可以有被动式:

They usually write exact instructions how the music is to be played. 他们通常还要为如何演奏他们的作品写出精确的说明。

Such mistakes are to be avoided. 这样的错误应当避免。

What’s to be done next?下一步该怎么办呢?

This medicine is to be taken three times a day after meals. 此药一日三次,饭后服用。

These tablets are to be kept out of the reach of children. 勿让儿童接触此药片。

The form is to be filled in in ink and returned within three weeks. 请于三周内将表用墨水笔填好并退回。

The book you borrowed is to be returned before this Saturday. 你借的那本书应于本周六之前归还。

All the questions are to be answered at once. 所有的问题都必须立即回答。

5were+不定式如用于if假设状语从句中,是一种虚拟语气,表示与将来事实相反的情况:

If we were to begin the meeting tomorrowshe would not leave so soon. (=Were we to begin the meeting tomorrowshe would not leave so soon.

=If we should begin the meeting tomorrowshe would not leave so soon.

=lf we began the meeting tomorrowshe would not leave so soon. )

如果我们明天就开会的话,她不会这么早离开。

6be about+不定式:表示“正要”、“即将”,指的是一个眼下就要发生的动作,因此,不可用表示将来的时间状语。但可以用aswhen引导的时间状语从句:

When I cameshe was about to go out. 当我到达的时候,她正要出去。

The plane is about to take off. 飞机就要起飞了。

My mother was about to go shopping when it began to rain. 我母亲正要出去买东西时,天开始下雨了。

The Smiths are about to start on journey. 史密斯一家就要出去旅行了。

5、作定语,常常放在所修饰的名词后面:

1】不定式与被修饰名词之间具有逻辑上的动宾关系:

I have a lot to do today.我今天有许多事情要做。(a lotdo的逻辑宾语)

Do you have anything else to say?你还有什么要说的吗?

I want to get something to read during my holiday.我想找些书假期里看。

I have three letters to write this evening. 今晚我有三封信要写。

That's a difficult question to answer.那是个很难回答的问题。

I’m very busyI have some letters to write. 我很忙;还有几封信要写呢。

I kept my promise not to go swimming. 我遵守了不去游泳的诺言。

Have you got a key to unlock this door?你有开这道门的钥匙吗?

That’s a difficult question to answer. 那是个很难回答的问题。

〖注〗①如果这个不定式是不及物动词,它后面应搭配必要的介词:

Song writers are no longer writing about the modern values of the USA——moneysuccess or expensive things to buy. 歌曲作者不再写美国的现代价值——金钱、成就或者购买昂贵物品。(thingsto buy的逻辑宾语)

Then there is nothing to worry about. I apologize. 那就没有什么可担心的了,我道歉。(nothingto worry about的逻辑宾语)

They had only a cold room to live in. 他们只有一间冷屋子住。(to 1ive in修饰room)

Please give me some paper to write on. 请给我几张书写用的纸。

He has a new pen to write with. 他有一支新的写字的钢笔。(to write with修饰pen)

Let’s find a room to put these things in. 我们找个房间把这些东西放在里边。

She is a nice person to work with. 她是一个很好共事的人。

He is not a person to get along well with. 他是个很难相处的人。

Please give me some paper to write on.请给我几张书写用的纸。

She has nothing to worry about.她没有什么可发愁的事。

Let's find a room to put these things in. 我们找个房间把这些东西放在里边。

②但有时候,不定式动词有它自己的宾语时,句尾也可不用介词:

Is that the way to do it? 这件事就是这样做的吗?

I'm not sure about his ability to complete the task alone.我对他独自完成这项任务的能力表示怀疑。

I'm looking for something to clean the machine (with).我在找东西擦机器。

③不定式作后置定语时,如果被它修饰的名词是havegivegetbuylend等动词的宾语,句子的主语是执行不定式动作的人或前面有一个代词执行该不定式的动作,一般不用被动式,而用主动式:

I’m busy. I have some reading materials to type. 我很忙。有一些阅读材料要打字。

2】不定式与被修饰名词之间具有逻辑上的主谓关系:

We must find a person to do the work.我们必须找个人做这项工作。(persondo的逻辑主语)

In my family my mother is always the first one to get up.在我家里,妈妈总是第一个起床。

He is always the first to come and the last to leave.他总是第一个来最后一个走。

We need someone to go and get an doctor.我们需要一个人去请个医生。

3】不定式与被修饰名词之间不具有逻辑上的动宾关系或主谓关系,而是与被修饰抽象名词形成同位关系用来对其进行说明。如:

There’s no need to send for a doctor. 用不着请医生了。(to send for a doctorneed的具体内容)

It's already time to go to work.早已经是上班的时间了。

Where's the best place to meet? 在什么地方见面最合适呢?

6、不定式作状语:

1】不定式常可用在作表语用的形容词如ableangryclevercomfortabledifficulteasyexcitingfoolishgladhappyhardinterestingluckypleasantpleasedpolitequickreadyrightslowsorrysurprisedwrong等后面作状语,说明产生这种情绪的原因,或是在哪方面存在表语形容词所表示的情况或表示一种因果关系。尽管不定式动词与主语存在着动宾关系,然而不定式不能用被动语态。如:

I'm sorry/glad to hear that.听了这个我很难过/高兴。

Be careful not to catch cold.小心别着凉了。

The girl was easy to get on with.这女孩很容易相处。

The question is rather difficult to answer. 这个问题很难回答。

You are very kind to help us.谢谢你帮助我们。

He is always ready to help others.他总是乐于助人。

We were surprised to find him there.看到他在那里我们感到很惊奇。

Pleased to meet you.见到你很高兴。

This story is interesting to read.这篇小说读起来非常有趣。

The little room is comfortable to live in.这间小房子住在里边很舒适。

2】动词不定式作结果状语,常常表示“意料不到”的意思。如带有only to,则表示不愉快的结果。如:

Two years laterher father disappearednever to be heard from again.两年以后,她的父亲失踪了,以后再也没有听到他的音讯。

He came round to find himself in hospital.他苏醒过来的时候,发现自己躺在医院里。

I hurried back only to be told that the meeting had been cancelled. 我赶紧回去,但别人告诉我说那次会议已取消了。

He came back only to find that his car was damaged.他回到家发现车被毁了。

He went home to find his old friend George waiting for him.他回到家里发现他的老朋友乔治在等他。

tooenough搭配,表示结果或程度。如:

He is too young to Join the army.他年纪太小,不能参军。

The old man lived long enough to see his son's success. 那位老人寿长,看到了儿子的成功。

She was not old enough to understand all that.她年龄不够大,不能理解所有这些。

The room is not big enough to hold so many people. 这个房间不够大,坐不下那么多人。

She was too young to understand all that.她太年轻不能理解这些。

The ice is not hard enough to skate on.冰不够坚硬,不能在上面溜冰。

3】作目的状语,为了强调可放在句首。如:

They will move back to keep a certain distance away. 他们会往后退,以保持一定的距离。

We eat to livewe don’t live to eat. 我们吃是为了活着,不是活着为了吃。

We must work hard to learn English well. 我们应该努力学好英语。

He ran as fast as he could to catch the first bus. 他拼命地跑为了赶上头班车。

It used to be free but now you have to pay to get in. 过去是免费的,但现在你得付钱才能进行了。

In those daysto make a callyou had to wind a handle at the side of your telephone. 那时候打一次电话,你得转动电话机旁的摇柄。

To make a callwe had to walk several kilometres to the town. 我们过去要打一次电话得走好几公里到镇上去打。

He wants to live to see all this. 他想活着亲眼看到这一切。

To be a teacher of the peopleone must first be their pupil. 要做人民的先生,先做人民的学生。

She decided to work harder in order to catch up with the others. 她决定加紧学习赶上别人。

He came here to attend an important meeting. 他来这儿出席一个重要的会议。

Mother came in quietly so as not to wake the sleeping son. 母亲轻轻地走了进来,以免惊醒儿子。

Alice got up early in order to be the first to come to school. 艾丽丝起得很早以便第一个到校。

〖注〗in order to do sth. 可放在句首,也可放在句中或句末,而so as to不能放在句首。

(三)不定式的被动式:一般说来,当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式,其形式是to be+过去分词。在句中所起的作用与主动式相同,即可作主语、宾语、定语、状语和复合结构。如:

It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here. 我很荣幸应邀在这里讲话。(作主语)

He has asked to be introduced to the pianist. 他请求会见郑杰。(作宾语)

He expressed a wish to be left alone. 他说他希望独自留下。(作定语)

She was too young to be given such work. 她太年轻,不宜把这工作交给她做。(作状语)

But some people don’t want good farmland to be built on. 但是有些人不赞成在好地上盖房子。(宾语补足语)

完成被动式to have been done在句中也作主语、宾语或构成复合宾语,间或用作定语,如:

He thought it an honor to have been invited to speak at the meeting. 被邀请在会上讲话,他感到是一种荣幸。(作宾语)

It is not a good thing for a child to have been punished like that. 对一个孩子,像这样惩罚他不见得是好事。(作主语)

She was the first woman to have been elected president of the world-famous university. 她是第一个被选为这所世界著名的大学校长的妇女。(作定语)

We know him to have once been put in prison for stealing. 我们知道他曾因偷窃被关进监狱。(作宾语补足语)

〖注〗①当用作不定式的动词是不及物动词时,应在其后加上介词,如:

She doesn't like herself to be talked to like that. 她不喜欢像那样对她讲话。

Parents usually expect their children to be taken good care of. 父母亲通常指望孩子们受到很好的照顾。

there be结构中如果不定式与主语为被动关系,可用主动式,也可用被动式:

There’s a lot of work to do/to be done. 有很多工作要做。

Hurry up! There’s no time to lose/to be lost. 快!没有时间可浪费了。

There are six letters to write/to be written today. 今天有六封信要写。

③在带有不定式的句子中,如不定式与最近的名词(代词)有逻辑上的动宾关系,但与同句中的另一名词却有主谓关系,则不定式用主动式,若无这种主动关系,则以用被动式为宜。如:

I gave the boy some picture-books to read. 我把一些图画书给那个小孩看。

I found the sentence hard to understand. 我发现这句子很难懂。

He has no one to talk with. 他没有什么人可交谈。

I consider the poem easy to learn by heart. 我觉得这首诗很容易记住。

但如果句子的主语是不定式动作的承受者,则不定式就用被动式。如:

These sheets are to be washed. 这些床单要洗一洗。

This form is to be filled in ink. 这张表格要用墨水填写。

④动词不定式to blame,其主动的形式常表示被动的意义,通常的意思是为发生的某种坏事承担责任。如:

I have only myself to blame. 我只能责怪自己。

The children were not to blame for the accident. 那事故的发生不应该责怪孩子们。

to let出租,与to blame一样,也是主动的形式,被动的含义。如:

The house is to let. 房子要出租。

但说to be let也是可以的:A good part of his land is to letto be let. 他的大部分土地要租出去。

(四)不定式的进行式:表示在谓语动词所表示的动作发生时,不定式表示的动作也正在进行。如:

We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us.我们没想到你在这儿等我们。

You don’t need to be worrying about her.你不必为她着急。

They seem to be talking about you.他们好象在谈论你的事。

(五)不定式的完成式:表示动词不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前。如:

He appeared to have heard of the bad news.他好像已经听到了这个坏消息。

They appeared to have done such a thing.他们似乎做了这样的事。

She appeared not to have got my letter.看来她没有收到我的信。

He appeared to have caught cold.他似乎患了感冒。

I am glad to have met him.我遇见了他非常高兴。

He pretended not to have seen me.他假装没看见我。

She seems to have finished her work.她好像已经完成了她的工作。

He didn’t appear to have fixed up the pipe.看来他并没有把管子安装好。

He could also work out how far the stars would appear to have moved. 他还能把恒星看上去移动了的距离也计算出来。

Between 1850 and 1910 the bison population is thought to have fallen from 60 million to just a few hundred. 人们认为,在1850年到1910年之间,野牛的头数从6,000万头下降到只有几百头了。

There had been fuel on the shipbut this did not appear to have caused the fireand little smoke was produced. 船上有一些燃料,但看来并不是燃料引起火灾的,而且几乎没有产生烟。

(六)不定式的完成进行式,表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前已进行了一段时间。如:

He is said to have been collecting stamps for years.据说他集邮已有好几年了。

She seems to have been writing letters since she got up. 她好象从起床以来一直在写信。

(七)不定式的省略:承接上文或并列的不定式可以省略,但保留to来代替整个不定式短语。在used tobe going tomean toought totry toplan to等结构中,当不定式被省略时,to通常都是保留的。如

If they wished tothey had to pass a reading test. 如果他们想得到选举权,就得通过一次阅读测验。

She lied to us because she had to in order to get a job. 她对我们说过谎话,那是为了得到一份工作不得不这么做的。

You can do it if you wish to (do it). 如果你愿意做这件事,那么你就做吧。

They should work hardbut you can’t force them to. 他们应该努力工作,但是不能强迫他们。

We don’t see each other nowbut we used to very often. 我们现在彼此不见面了,但是以前是经常见面的。

Would you like to join in the discussion?你想参加讨论吗?

YesI’d like to. 我想参加。

I went there because I wanted to. 我去了那儿,因为我要去。

I don’t dance much nowbut I used to a lot. 我现在不大跳舞,但从前经常跳。

I’d love tobut I have no time now. 我很想去,但我现在没有时间。

Will you join us in the discussion? 你愿意和我们一起讨论吗?

I’ll be glad to. 愿意。

Would you like to go shopping with us? 你愿意和我们一起去买东西吗?

I prefer not to. 我不愿去。

〖注〗①在某些动词、形容词或名词之后,不定式符号to也可以省略:

She may go if she likes (to). 如果她想去,也可以去。

Can you fix the radio?你能修理这部收音机吗?—OKI’ll try (to). 好,我试试看。

Don’t let him leave the department if he is not ready (to). 不要让他离开这个部门,假如他不愿意离开的话。

He says he will come as soon as he has got a chance (to). 他说有机会就来。

②不定式带有连系动词be或助动词have,则须保留behave。如:

Are you a doctor?你是医生吗?

NoI don't want to be. 不,我不想当。

SorryI haven't finished my work yet. 对不起,我还没做完呢。

Wellyou ought to have.你应该完成了。

(八)不定式不带to的情况:

1】一般情况下,动词不定式作表语不能省去to,但如果用来解释主语所做事情的具体内容,并且主语部分中带有动词do,则不定式可以不带to

The first thing she did was go up to her trainer and thank her for all her help during her training. 她做的第一件事就是向教练走去,并感谢她在训练期间给予她的帮助。

What a dictionary does is help the students to find out the meaning and the usage of new words. 字典的作用是帮助学生查明生词的词义和用法。

What a grammar book does is help students make correct sentences. 语法书的作用就是帮助学生正确造句。

What I want to do is run a night schoo1. 我所想做的是办一所学校。

2】英语中表示使役、感觉感知动作的动词如feelhavehearhelpletlisten tolook atmakenoticeobserveseewatch等词语作谓语时,其宾语补足语不带to。如:

I was in the kitchen cooking something and I felt the floor move. I watched all the glasses that were on the table fall off and onto the floor. 我正在厨房里煮东西,这时我感到地板在移动。我看到桌上所有的玻璃杯掉到地板上了。

She lets her children stay up very late. 她让孩子很晚睡觉。

I made them give me the money back. 我让他们把我的钱还了。

I’ll have Tom do it for you. 我来让Tom为你做。

I didn’t see you come in. 我没看见你进来。

I heard her say that she was fed up. 我听她说她有足够的营养食品。

I noticed him leave his office. 我注意到他离开了他的办公室。

Could you help me (to) lift this heavy box?请帮我把这只重箱子提起来。

I’ve never observed him do anything like that. 我从未看到他做过那样的事。

The teacher made Tom do the work again.老师让汤姆重做作业。

〖注〗这些句子如果改为被动语态,则不定式都要加上to,但动词havelet一般不会有被动语态。如:

Tom was made to do the work again.汤姆被迫重做作业。

3】当两个不定式短语由andorbutthan连接时,第二个不定式一般不带to。如:

I’d like to lie down and go to sleep. 我想躺下睡一觉。

Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later?你想现在吃中饭还是等一会再吃?

I’d rather give up the chance than hurt her. 我宁愿放弃这个机会也不愿伤害她。

Rather than wait any moreI decided to go home by taxi. 我宁愿乘出租车回家也不愿再等下去。

It is for you to decide whether to stay or leave. 是去还是留,这由你决定。

He told us to finish the work first and then go home. 他叫我们干完工作以后回家。

〖注〗如果两者有对比关系,则在每个不定式前面加to。如:

They didn’t tell me whether to go on or to stop. 他们没告诉我是继续还是停止。

4】如果省略名词后面的不定式时,则不定式符号to往往可一起省去。如:

Tom will never miss school without reasons he hasn't got the courage (to). 汤姆不会无故缺课,他没有这个胆量。

I'd like to read the bookbut I haven't got the time (to). 这本书我想读一读,可是没有时间。

I will come as soon as I have got a chance(to).我一有机会就来。

5wantwould like如用于从句中,不定式符号to则通常可省略。如:

Come whenever you want.你想什么时候来就什么时候来。

You can stay here as long as you like.你在这儿愿意呆多久就呆多长。

Will she come and join us?她愿意来和我们一起干吗?

I don't think she'd like.我想她不会愿意。

6help后面的不定式可带to,也可不带to。如:

The medicine will help to cure your cold.这药有助于治疗你的感冒。

The medicine will help cure your cold.

The medicine will help you to cure your cold

The medicine will help you cure your cold

7】在句型nothing(nonot any) but (except) (to) do前有动词do,则后面的不定式应省去to,无do则须带to。如:

He did nothing last night but watch TV.昨晚他除了看电视,什么也没做。

We had nothing to do but/except wait for our chance. 我们毫无办法,只能等待机遇。

There's nothing for me to do but wait.我除了等待以外,没有别的办法。

I have no choice but to act on his advice.我别无选择,只好按他说的去做。(介词but前没有do,后面的不定式应带to)

8】在had betterwould ratherwould rather…than…cannot but等某些固定结构中。如:

You’d better do what you could do. 你最好做你所能做的事情。

(九)辨析不定式与现在分词作补足语

英语中表示感觉感知的动词如seehearnoticewatch等,后面可以接不定式作宾语补足语表示一个动作的全过程或一个动作已经完成了,也可以接现在分词作宾语补足语表示一个动作正在发生。如:

We can see them flying along the river. 我们可以看到鹦鹉沿着河边飞翔。

I saw him crossing the road. 我看见他正在过马路。

I saw him cross the road. 我看见他过了马路。

I heard him going down the stairs. 我听见他下楼的声音。

I heard him go down the stairs. 我听见他下楼去了。

四、动名词

()动名词的构成形式:动名词由动词原形加-ing形式构成,与现在分词同形。有被动式和完成式。

 

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

()动名词的作用 :动名词具有名词的性质,但同时又保留了动词的功能,仍可以带宾语或状语。动名词与其宾语或状语一起构成动名词短语。动名词(短语)在句中具有名词的作用,作主语、宾语(包括介词宾语)、表语和同位语,一般表示:①笼统或泛指的意思;②抽象或经常性动作;③已成为过去的动作。

1、作主语,谓语用单数形式:

Doing this can save a lot of time and money. 这样做能节省许多时间和钱。

Checking information is very important. 审核新闻是否正确是非常重要的。

Doing this is more difficult in English than in Chinese. 用英文写新闻标题比用中文写难些。

Checking the information is very important. 核实情况非常重要。

Knowing is one thingdoing is another. 知是一回事,做又是另一回事。

Seeing is believing. 眼见为实。

Waving one’s hand is to say “Goodbye”. 摆手表示“再见”。

Nodding the head means agreementwhile shaking it means disagreement. 点点头表示同意,而摇摇头表示不同意。

〖注〗①动名词作主语,其表语为名词goodusefuna waste of time或形容词niceinterestingfoolish时,常用it作形式主语,而把动名词放在句尾:

It’s no use waiting. There won’t be another bus. 等也没有用,再也没有车了。

It’s no good/use having a car if you can't drive. 如果你不会开车,有车也没有用。

It’s great fun preparing for a party. 筹备一次聚会是很有趣味的。

Nice meeting you here. 很高兴在这儿遇见你。

It’s difficult getting everything ready in such a short time. 在这么短的时间里把一切都准备好是十分困难的。

②动名词也可用于There is no…句型中,语气较强:

There’s no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得半点玩笑。

There’s no saying what may happen. 无法估计将会发生什么事。

2、作宾语:动名词在句中作宾语,有下列情况:

1】在admit; advise; appreciate; avoid; be used to; be worth; burst out; can’t bear; can’t help(忍不住、情不自禁); can’t stand; consider; defer; deny; dislike; delay; dread; enjoy; escape; excuse; feel like; finish; forgive; give up; look forward to; imagine; include; insist on; keep (on); mind; miss; pardon; postpone; practise; prevent/keep/stop sb. from; put off; risk; set about; succeed in; suggest; understand等动词和动词词组之后必须用动名词,表示一般的情况或习惯:

He advised waiting till the proper time. 他劝告(我们)等到恰当的时机才行动。

We tried to prevent the river (from) flooding the town. 我们力图阻止河水淹没这座城镇。

Forgive my interrupting you. 请原谅我打扰了你。

I couldn’t help being late. My train was delayed by fog. 我不得已迟到了,我的火车让雾给耽误了。

I delayed answering you because of the pressure of the work. 我因工作忙而没有及时答复你。

Would you mind filling out this form?请填一下这张表好吗?

Maori families enjoy sharing what they own and looking after one another. 毛利人的家庭喜欢共享他们拥有的东西,并乐意彼此照顾。

I don't feel like going to the theatre tonight. 今晚我不想去看戏。

He avoided giving us a definite answer. 他避免给我们一个肯定回答。

You must stop her telling the truth. 你必须不让她说出真相来。

I really can't help getting excited when I see him. 看到他时我真忍不住激动的心情。

Have you considered taking an evening English course?你是否在考虑上英语晚班?

My wife suggested spending the weekend with her parents. 我妻子建议和她父母一块过周末。

He has finished mending the car. 他已经修完了汽车了。

I'm sorry I missed seeing you while in Beijing. 很遗憾,在北京时我没看到你。

Three girls from the College of Education practised teaching at our schoo1. 教育学院的三个女生在我们学校实习。

He kept nodding as he listened. 他听着时不断点头。

We'll keep on working hard on his advice. 我们将遵循他的意见,继续努力工作。

Have you decided to give up smoking?你下决心戒烟了吗?

You were lucky to escape punishment/being punished. 你真幸运,逃脱了惩罚。

He looked about ready to burst out crying. 看上去他憋不住马上就要哭出来了。

2begin; start; continue; intend; design等动词接动名词或动词不定式作宾语意义没有区别:

He began talking/to talk in a loud voice. 他开始大声讲话。

They began throwing/to throw furniture out of the window. 他们开始把家具扔到窗外去。

How long will you continue working/to work?你将继续工作多久?

Do you intend to make a long stay there?你打算在那儿久呆吗?

What do you intend doing next?你下一步打算做什么?

They design to do/doing the job at once. 他们打算立刻就干这件工作。

〖注〗当beginstart的主语是物而不是人时;当beginstart为进行时态时;当作宾语的动词表示思想、感情或意念等心理状态时;表示不以人的意志为转移的动作时,后接动词不定式而不接动名词:

It began to rain. 天开始下雨了。

He is beginning to realize that he had made a mistake. 他正开始意识到他犯了一个错误。

She began to understand what they meant. 她开始理解他们的意思。

The ice began to melt. 冰雪开始融化了。

He began to realize the importance of English study. 他开始认识到学习英语的重要性。

3】在dislike; hate; like; love等动词接动名词或不定式作宾语意义有一定区别,动名词表示一般情况或概念性的内容,不定式指某一具体行为。如:

I dislike reading/to read long articles. 我不喜欢长篇文章。

He likes seeing films. 他喜欢看电影。

Would you like to go to the cinema with me?你愿和我去看一场电影吗?

I hate disturbing others while they are busy. 当别人忙时,我不愿去打扰他们。

I really hate to disturb youbut I do have something important to tell you. 我真不想打扰你,但我确有要事相告。

When did you begin learning (to learn) English?你什么时候开始学英语的?

She hates smoking. 她讨厌抽烟。(表示谁吸烟她都讨厌)

She hates to smoke. 她不想抽烟。(表示她自己不抽烟)

4】下列动词接动名词或不定式意义差别很大:

1needwantrequire接动名词时,主语与动名词为被动关系,want/need意为“需要”;接不定式时,主语为人,与不定式为主动关系,意为“需要/要……做”;主语为物,则接不定式的被动式表示被动关系:

The bike wants/needs repairing/to be repaired. 这自行车需要修理。

My hair needs cutting/to be cut. 我的头发需要理了。

Whose chair needs fixing? 谁的椅子要修理?

I want to buy a new bike. 我想买一辆新自行车。

Your house needs a thorough cleaning. 你的房子需要清扫。

You don’t need to go now. 你不必要马上走。

The book requires considerable rewriting in parts. 这书有些部分需要作相当大的修改。

2mean接动名词表示“意味着”,接不定式表示“打算”:

What he said meant hiring more workers. 他的意思是再雇一些工人。

Missing the train means waiting an hour. 误了那次火车意味着要等一个小时。

I meant no harm. I only meant to help you. 我没有恶意,我只是想帮助你。

3forget; remember; regret等动词接动名词表示动作已发生,接不定式表示该不定式的动作尚未发生:

Remember to post the letter for me. 记得给我把信寄走。

Don’t forget to lock the bike. 别忘了把车锁上。

I shall always remember meeting you for the first time. 我将永远记得初次同你会面的情景。

I forgot locking the door and went back again. 我忘了已把门锁上,所以又回去了一趟。

I shall never forget seeing your teacher. 我永远不会忘记见到你老师的情景。

I regret to tell you that you failed in the exam. 我遗憾地告诉你,你考试不及格。

They regretted ordering these books from abroad. 向国外订了这些书,他们很后悔。

4stop接动名词表示“停止正在做的事”,接不定式表示“停下来去做某事”:

We stopped talking so as not to frighten the animals. 我们停止讲话,以免惊动这些动物。

We stopped to have a little rest. 我们停下来休息一会。

Her heart seemed to stop beating. 她的心脏似乎停止了跳动。

5try接动名词表示“试试做某事”,接不定式表示“努力去做某事”:

Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door. 如果前门无人应声,你敲后门试试看。

We tried giving her milk to drinkbut she did not get better. 我们试着给她喝牛奶,但她还是不见好转。

Try to finish the work in a week. 设法在一周内把这工作做完。

6adviseallowforbidpermit之后用动名词作宾语,用不定式作宾语补足语:

Teachers doesn’t allow talking in class. 老师不允许(我们)在课上随便交谈。

We don’t allow people to smoke here. 这里禁止人们吸烟。

I wouldn’t advise taking the car. 我不主张开车去。

I wouldn’t advise you to take the car. 我劝你不要开车去。

7learn后面接不定式作宾语时表示“学会做某事”,接动名词作宾语时表示“学习做某事”:

Where did you learn to skate?你在什么地方学会滑冰的?

Having learned to skateshe went on to learn swimming. 学会滑冰以后,她接着学游泳。

5】介词(but除外)后面的动词一律用动名词形式:

On hearing a cry for helpwe rushed out of the room. 一听到呼救声,我们就冲出屋子。

The most important thing in learning a language is using the language. 语言学习最重要的事是使用语言。

She is interested in doing chemical experiments. 她喜欢做化学实验。

Buying magazines is a good way of finding out information. 买杂志是查找资料的好办法。

What about going to France this summer?夏天到法国去怎么样?

Gandhi was thrown off a train and later a mail bus for insisting on travelling in the whites-only section. 甘地在旅行时,由于坚持要坐在白人座位区,曾经先后两次被人从一列火车和一辆邮车上扔了下去。

I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work. 我没去上班,而是在床上躺了一整天。

She’s got a cleaning job at nightas well as working during the day. 她不但白天工作晚上还当清洁工。

〖注〗butnonot anyall等词连用时为介词,但其后面的动词不用动名词,而用不定式,不定式带to还是不带to要根据but前面有没有dodoesdid,如有,则不要带to,反之,则带to,这是介词中的一个特殊情况:

She could do nothing but cry. 她别无办法,只能哭。

3、作定语:动名词(短语)作定语,表示所修饰名词的用途:

a sleeping car一节卧车;

a dancing hall一间舞厅;

drinking water饮用水;

a swimming poola pool for swimming游泳池;

a writing deska desk for writing写字台;

a reading rooma room for reading阅览室;

working methodsmethods for working工作方法

〖注〗现在分词用作定语修饰名词则表示该名词正在进行的动作或存在状态:a sleeping child一个正在睡觉的孩子;a dancing girl一个正在跳舞的女孩;a drinking horse正在饮水的马

4、作表语动名词作表语,一般可以用不定式替换:

The problem is finding/to find land for it. 问题是要找到建造新工厂的地皮。

His hobby is watching/to watch football games. 他的爱好就是看足球赛。

Our job is playing/to play all kinds of music. 我们的职业就是演奏各种乐器。

My favorite pastime is collecting/to collect stamps. 我喜爱的消遣是集邮。

Her job is cookingwashing and shopping. 她的工作是做饭、洗衣和买东西。

His job is teaching. 他的工作是教书。

The real problem is getting to know the needs of the students. 真正的问题是了解人民的需要。

〖注〗①比较动名词作表与现在进行时态的差异:

He is teaching now. 他现在正在教书。

The soldiers’ duty is defending the country. 战士的任务就是保卫祖国。

My job is typing letters and papers. 我的工作就是打信件和文件。

My job now is to type these letters and papers. 我现在的工作就是打这些信件和文件。

②用very来区别动名词作表语与现在分词作表语:加上very句子仍通畅,说明该-ing形式是分词,否则是动名词。或将主语与表语-ing形式调换位置,如句子意思仍成立,则该-ing形式是动名词,否则是分词。我们可以说:Her hobby is collecting bird eggs. 也可以说Collecting bird eggs is her hobby。可见collecting bird eggs是动名词短语,而不是现在分词短语。

③可以说Teaching is learningTo teach is to learn(教书是学习),不能说Teaching is to learnTo teach is learning,因为动名词和不定式有对称使用的特点。

(三)动词的名词化:动名词有时可以进一步名词化,具有更多名词的特点。它可以有自己的冠词,可以有定语修饰它,在某些情况下甚至有其复数形式。常见的词语有:do cooking烧饭做菜;do reading看书;do swimming游泳;do shopping买东西;do cleaning做大扫除;do washing洗衣服;do some writing写东西;do some 1istening进行听力练习;do some sightseeing观光;do some translating翻译;do some talking谈话。这些动名词前可以用定冠词the,但不能用不定冠词aan,可以用somemucha lot ofanya little等表示不确切数量的词修饰,但不能用manya fewseveral等表示可数概念的词修饰。如:

Although it was expensivewe decided to buy the computer. We must make the buying of tickets easier for our passengers. 虽然价钱昂贵,我们还是决定把计算机买下来。我们一定要让旅客们更容易买到机票。

The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month and a new company has been started. 盖一座新汽车工厂的建议已于上月得到同意,一家新的公司已经开业。

We should give the room a good cleaning. 我们应当把房间好好打扫一次。

Who did the recording?谁录的音?

She prefers doing washing to cooking. 她宁肯洗衣服,而不愿做饭菜。

I have some shopping to do this afternoon. 我今天下午要去买点东西。

He paid little attention to their comings and goings. 他对他们的来来往往不予关注。

Most of the harvesting of crops was done by machines. 收获庄稼大多是由机器进行的。

The making of such clothes needs careful attention. 做这样的衣服需要十分的细心。

By the first century the making of paper in some parts of China had been well developed. 到了一世纪,造纸业在中国有些地方已发展得相当好。

Silk is popular for quilt coverings. 绸缎做被面很受欢迎。

We do some listening twice a week. 我们一星期练两次听力。

Did you do any sightseeing there? 在那儿你们游览了什么地方没有?

Do you do much thinking when you read?你在读书时爱思考吗?

She did most of the talking at the meeting. 会上大部分的时间都是她谈。

(四)动名词用于固定结构:英语中有些句型需用动名词,这些句型已成了一种固定结构,这些结构常见的有以下几种:

1have difficulty/trouble/problem/fun/pleasure/a good time/a hard time(in) doing

I have some difficulty in pronouncing some of the words in English. 有些英语单词的发音我还有些困难。

We had no difficulty(trouble/problem) (in) finding his house. 我们毫不费力地找到了他的家。

Did you have any trouble (in) driving through the snow? 你在雪中行驶费劲吗?

We had much fun/pleasure talking with him. 和他谈话我们感到非常有趣/高兴。

I had a good time/a hard time living with the neighbour. 与这个邻居生活在一起我感到很愉快/很难受。

〖注〗这一句型中的difficultytroubleproblem同义,可相互替换,三词不能用于复数。funpleasure在这一句型中也为不可数名词。

2There’s no need/use/harm/hurry (in) doing

There’s no use making an excuse for this. It’s no use(good) making an excuse for this. 为这件事编造借口没用。

There’s no need waiting for him. He won't come. 没必要等他,他不会来的。

There’s no hurry getting ready for this. 不必匆忙为此做准备。

There’s no harm keeping silent about this. 对此保持沉默没害处。

3】以下句型中也常用动名词:

There’s no knowing how old she is. 我们无法知道她多大年龄。

You have no right talking to me the way you did yesterday. 你没有权利象昨天那样和我讲话。

Our family are in the habit of going to church every Sunday. 我们全家都习惯于在星期天去教堂。

They are all opposed to putting the meeting off. 他们都反对延期开会。

I don't like the idea of getting up too late. 我不喜欢起床太迟。

I’m not used to getting up so early. 我不习惯起得这么早。

Do you think David is suited to teaching?你认为大卫适合教书吗?

The novel is worthy of being read twice. 这部小说值得读两遍。

〖注〗“这儿不许吸烟喝酒”一句应说成No smoking and no drinking (are allowed) hereNo smoking or drinking (is allowed) here. 这里smokedrink应作动词用,如作名词则表示“烟和酒”。

(五)动名词的完成式:动名词所代表的动作如果在谓语所表示的动作之前发生通常用动名词的完成式:

I was pleased that the manager had decided not to be angry with me for having been so rude. 我很高兴经理决定不因为我曾经粗鲁地对待他而对我大发雷霆。

He was praised for having saved a child. 他因救了一个孩子而受到表扬。

I apologize for not having kept my promise. 我没有遵守诺言向你表示歉意。

I’m sorry for having forgotten to tell you this. 很抱歉忘了告诉你这件事。

She denied having opened the box. 她否认打开过这个箱子。

He did not speak of having done the experiment. 他并未谈及已做了这个实验。

I regretted for having missed the match. 我为错过了那场比赛而后悔。

(六)动名词复合结构n. /pron. + -ing

There are many reasons for animals dying outbut the most important one is the part that humans have played. 动物的绝种有许多原因,而最重要的原因在于人类所起的作用。(介词宾语)

His smoking caused the fire in the forest. 他抽烟引起了这起森林火灾。(主语)

We don’t like young people smoking. 我们不喜欢年轻人抽烟。(宾语)

The mother’s worry is her son making trouble for his school. 这位母亲担心的是她儿子给学校惹麻烦。(表语)

There will be no chance of your seeing him again. 你没有再见到他的机会了。(介词宾语)

五、分词:

(一)分词的构成形式:

1、现在分词:

 

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

2、过去分词只有一种形式:

及物动词

不及物动词

(主动)

主动

被动

/

done

gone / fallen

现在分词与过去分词的区别:分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种形式。分词仍保留有动词性质,在句中起着形容词和副词的作用,作定语、状语、表语、宾主语补足语和主语补足语。现在分词与过去分词的主要区别在于:现在分词与它所涉及的人或事物一般具有主动关系,过去分词与它所涉及的人或事物一般具有被动关系;现在分词具有正在进行的意味,而过去分词具有完成的意味。如:

This is an exciting story. 这是一个令人兴奋的故事。(storyexciting为主动关系)

Greatly surprisedI asked her why. 我感到非常惊奇,我问她为什么。(Isurprised为被动关系)

The students came into the classroom talking and laughing. 学生们说着笑着走进教室。(the studentstalking and laughing为主动关系)

The article was thought badly written. 大家认为这篇文章写得不好。(the articlewritten为被动关系)

You might get burnt and you might drop the pan of burning oil. 你也许会被烧伤,而扔下着火的油锅。(你被烫:被动;油正在燃烧:主动)

(二)分词在句子中的作用:

1、定语:分词作定语,是用现在分词还是过去分词取决于分词动作与其逻辑主语(即被修饰的词——先行词)的逻辑关系如果被修饰的词是这个分词动作的执行者就应用现在分词形式;如果被修饰的词是这个分词动作的接受者,就应用过去分词形式。

1】现在分词短语作定语:一般说来,单个现在分词作定语时,放在所修饰的词前面;现在分词短语作定语时,放在所修饰的名词后面,相当于一个定语从句:

China is a developing country. 中国是一个发展中国家。

He lit a fire and took a burning stick from it. 他点了一堆火,从中拿出一根燃烧着的树枝。

A few days later about 140 black people were taken and put on a tall sailing ship waiting off the coast. 几天以后,大约140名黑人被带到一艘停靠在海岸边的大帆船上。

The ship sailing along the coast is from London. 那艘沿海岸航行的大船是从伦敦开来的。

But Einstein was able to prove that light coming form the stars was bent as it passed the sun. 然而爱因斯坦却能证明从恒星上来的光线当其经过太阳时变弯曲了。

He left school and worked first in a food factory and later as a worker building roads. 他毕业离校后,先在一家食品厂工作,后来又当过筑路工人。

We've had a telephone message from your father telling us that you were on the train. 我们接到你们父亲来的电话,说你们在这一列车上。

Two days later I received a letter offering me the job. 两天以后,我接到来信,同意把这个职位给我。

2】现在分词短语与动名词作定语的区别

①现在分词作定语,表示所修饰的词正在进行的动作,它和被修饰的名词有一种逻辑上的主谓关系,即被修饰的各词执行现在分词所表示的这个动作。如:

The rising sun looks very beautiful. 初升的太阳真美丽。

The sun setting in the west looks even more beautiful. 西沉的太阳更美。

The people performing all play different instruments and three of them sing too. 参加演奏的人都能演奏不同的乐器,其中三个人还能演唱。

The man talking with our headmaster is Tom’s father. 跟我们校长谈话的那个人是汤姆的父亲。

This made top news in the surrounding countryside. 这成了附近一带农村的头条新闻。

The people smoking are not welcome here. 抽烟的人在这儿是不受欢迎的。

Those standing were asked to sit at the back. 站着的人被请到后边坐下。

Who is the one crying?正在哭的那个人是谁?

②动名词作定语与被修饰的名词没有逻辑上的主谓关系,表示所修饰的词的用途或类型,一般使用单个动名词放在所修饰的词前。如:

There is a swimming pool in our schoo1. 我们学校里有一个游泳池。

We entered the waiting room. 我们进了候车室。

③比较:

a sleeping child(=a child who is sleeping)正在睡觉的孩子(现在分词)

a sleeping car(=a car for sleeping)卧车(动名词)

running water(=water that is running)流水(现在分词)

running shoes (=shoes for running)跑鞋(动名词)

a flying fish(=a fish that can fly)飞鱼(现在分词)

a flying suit(=a suit for flying)飞行衣(动名词)

living things(=things that live)生物(现在分词)

living conditions(=conditions for living)居住条件(动名词)

dancing waves(=waves that dance)起伏的波浪(现在分词)

a dancing hall(=a hall for dancing)舞厅(动名词)

3】过去分词作定语,其逻辑主语是所修饰的词语。

①单个的过去分词或只带副词的单个过去分词作前置定语,相当于形容词,只侧重状态和比较永久性的特点:

a highly developed country高度发达的国家;

a broken window一扇打碎了的窗子;

a recently-built house最近建造的一幢房子;

the above-mentioned books上面提到的书

a widely used language一种广泛使用的语言;

a wrongly pronounced sound一个发错了的音;

a newly discovered island一个新近发现的岛屿;

highly praised deeds受到高度赞扬的行为;

a carefully charted map一张经过仔细测绘的地图;

a badly damaged dam一座遭到严重损坏的水坝;

a well described story一个精心描述的故事

the burnt fish烧糊的鱼;

Last Monday our class went on an organized trip to a forest to study the wildlife. 上星期一,我们班进行了一次有组织的旅行,到森林里去研究野生动物。

Polluted rivers and lakes have also been a cause of death. 江河湖泊被污染,也是动物死亡的原因。

They invented different kinds of fishing netsalso a curiously shaped piece of wood for hunting which could be thrown and which would return to the thrower if it did not strike anything. 他们发明了各种各样的渔网,还发明了一种用木头制成的形状奇特的捕猎器,这种捕猎器可投掷出去,如果没有击中目标,它又会回到投掷者手中来。

②过去分词或过去分词短语作后置定语时,既有形容词的特征,又有动词的特征,主要突出动词的特征:

the problem discussed讨论过的问题;

the distance covered走过的距离;

the success just obtained刚取得的成功;

the only place left剩下的唯一的地方

the language used in Britain英格兰所用的语言;

the English spoken in America美国所讲的英语;

the glass broken yesterday昨天打破的那只玻璃杯;

the fish burnt by you被你烧糊的鱼;

At the same time another kind of paper was developedmade from silk. 与此同时还研制出了另外一种纸,是用丝制成的帛。

Coins can be made of many different kinds of metal mixed together. 硬币是由混合在一起的多种金属所制成的。

It is said that 125,00 people died in Russia as a result of illnesses caused by this accident. 据说,在俄罗斯有125,000人由于这次事故所引起的疾病而死亡。

There was once a famous detective named Sherlock Holmes who lived in London at the end of the nineteenth century. 19世纪末在伦敦有一位著名的侦探名叫夏洛克·福尔摩斯。

The experiments carried out in space provided a great deal of valuable information. 在太空进行的实验提供了大量有价值的资料。

Holmes discovered a hole made in the wall between two rooms. 福尔摩斯发现两间房的隔墙上挖了一个洞。

The hard chair examined carefully by Holmes stood against the wall. 福尔摩斯仔细察看的那张硬质椅子是靠墙放着的。

The problems discussed at the meeting were about the protection of wild animals. 会上所讨论的是有关保护野生动物的问题。

③有些过去分词不能作前置定语,但若在其前加上一个副词后,就可以前置:

a recently-built house新修的住房

a widelyread book广泛阅读的书

④有些分词习惯后置。如:

the boy found被找到的孩子

the house built所造的那座房子

The only ticket (that was) left was given to Mary. 那张仅剩的票给了玛丽了。

⑤有时为了强调还可将单一的分词置于被修饰名词之后或作前置或后置定语时词义不同:

These are the used motorcycles. 这些是旧摩托车。

The equipment used then was of a new type. 当时用的器材是新式的。

We met him at the given time and place. 我们在规定的时间和地点见到了他。

The gift given to her daughter was a new bike. 给她女儿的礼物是一辆新自行车。

The experience gained will be of great value to us. 取得的经验将对我们很有价值。

4】过去分词作定语时与定语从句的关系:过去分词短语作定语相当于一个定语从句,一般放在所修饰的先行词之后。

①及物动词的过去分词可改为动词为被动形式的定语从句。如:

an organized trip=a trip which is organized by sb. 有组织的旅行;

an unknown plant=a plant that is unknown一种不知名的植物;

a well-kept secret=a secret that is well-kept一个保守得很好的秘密;

a fallen tree=a tree which has fallen一棵倒下的树;

lost time=time which is lost时去的时间

An animal (which is) called milu deer was once very common in China. 一种叫做麋鹿的鹿曾经是中国很普通的动物。

Here are five pieces of advice (which have been) collected from Jia Sixie’s book Qi Min Yao Shu. 这里是从贾思勰的《齐民要术》书中摘录的五条意见。

The southern part of the island is a separate country(which is) called the Republic of Ireland with Dublin as its capital. 该岛南部则是另外一个国家,叫做爱尔兰共和国,首都是都柏林。

②部分不及物动词的过去分词作定语时并不具有被动的意思,而只是具有完成了的状态,可改为动词为完成式或动词为表示状态的定语从句。如:

fallen leaves=leaves that have fallen落叶

the risen sun=the sun which has risen升起的太阳

a returned soldier=a soldier who has returned一位回归的战士

retired workers=workers who have retired退休工人

a learned man=a man who is of much learning一位学者

a sunken ship=a ship which has sunk一艘沉船

5】过去分词可构成复合形容词。其构成方法如下:

①形容词+过去分词:a long-remembered story一个久久不忘的故事;a green-painted door一道漆成绿色的门;a ready-made dress一件做好的礼服

②副词+过去分词:a well-educated woman一位很有教养的妇女;a widely-read book一本广泛诵读的书;a badly-lighted room光照不好的房间

③名词+过去分词:hand-made shoes手工做的鞋;a heart-broken woman一位心碎的妇女;a man-made satellite人造卫星

2、宾语补足语:分词作宾语补足语,其逻辑主语都是宾语。如果宾语是这个动作的执行者(或发出者),要用现在分词;如果宾语是这个动作的接受者要用过去分词。

1】现在分词短语作宾语补足语

①动词现在分词在某些感官动词如seelook athearlisten tonoticewatchobservefindfeel等的宾语后面作宾语补足语构成复合宾语,表示正在进行的动作:

In some parts of the world nowadaysyou often see musicians performing in the streets to passers-by. 今天,在世界上有些地方,你常常可以看到音乐家在街头为过往行人演奏。

Suddenly he heard someone knocking gently on the window. 忽然,他听见有人轻轻敲窗子。

Children like to watch magicians performing tricks. 孩子们喜欢看魔术师表演魔术。

Do you see a girl running towards us? 你看到一个女孩向我们跑过来吗?

We notice a bus coming to us. 我们注意到一辆公共汽车正向我们开来。

Do you see flags wavingclouds floatingsigns swaying? 你见到旗帜招展,云朵飘浮,标牌摆动吗?

②在使役动词havegetleavekeep等的宾语后面作补足语,表示宾语动作的持续:

At that moment he remembered that all the ticketspassports and travelers cheques were in his jacket that he had left hanging next to his seat. 这时他才想起全部车票、护照和旅行支票都放在他的夹克衫里而夹克衫还挂在他的座位旁边哩。

Then I left him standing by the counter so happy that I almost envied him. 然后我离开了,他站在柜台旁,是那么高兴,我倒有点羡慕他了。

We’ll soon have our car going again. 我们会很快就使我们的车发动起来的。

I'm sorry to have kept you waiting. 对不起,让你久等了。

We shall soon have a few students staying with us. 不久我们将有几个学生和我们呆在一起。

I can't have you catching cold. Run and change your wet clothes. 我不能让你着凉,赶快去换掉湿衣服。

2】过去分词作补足语,过去分词作宾语补足语与宾语为被动关系。

①常见于seefeelfindgethearkeepmakewatch等动词后:

I can see it fastened to a nail next to the hole in the wall. (=I can see that it is fixed to a nail. )我看到它(铃绳)是系在墙洞旁边的一个钉子上。

When you speakyou should make yourself understood. 当你讲话时,你应使人家懂得你的意思。

I have never heard the song sung in English. 我从来也没有听到有人用英语唱这首歌。

We should keep them informed of what is going on here. 我们应当让他们知道这儿发生的情况。

He didn't notice his wallet stolen. 他没注意到他的钱包被偷了。

She fell off her bike and got her arm hurt. 她从自行车上摔下来,胳膊受了伤。

The next morning people found the world outside their houses completely changed. 第二天早上人们发现外边的世界全都变了样。

We consider the pipes connected. 我们认为这些管子接好了。

Being sick with fevershe left the food untouched. 由于她发高烧,那食物一点没有吃过。

His mother did not tell him because she wished the whole thing buried and forgotten. 他的母亲希望把事情全掩盖过去并忘掉,因此没有告诉他。

have+宾语+done结构:

1)表示“请人做”,强调主语的意志:

I had my tap repaired. 我请人修好了水龙头。

My radio set doesn't work. I’ll have it repaired. 我的收音机坏了。我要去找人修。

She is so ill. You ought to have her examined. 她病得那么厉害,你得请人给她检查检查。

2)表示“遭遇(某种不幸的)事情”:

She had her house damaged in the storm. 她的房屋在风暴中遭到了破坏。

I had my watch stolen on the bus yesterday. 昨天在公共汽车上,我的表被偷了。

The king had his head cut off. 国王被杀头了。

3)表示“使完成某事”,此事可以是别人完成的,也可能是自己参与的:

She told me she had had her house repaired. 她告诉我,她的房屋修好了。

I have had all the branches cut up for firewood. 所有树枝都已砍作柴火了。

When you talkyou have to make yourself understood. 你说话至少要让别人听得懂。

3、表语:

1】现在分词作表语:现在分词作表语,表示主语的性质或特征。如:

The news is inspiring. 这消息令人鼓舞。

Her job is interesting. 他的工作很有趣。

It is surprising to hear the news. 听到这个消息令人吃惊。

Time is pressing. Let’s hurry up. 时间很紧,我们得赶快。

〖注〗注意与现在进行时比较。进行时态表示动作,系表结构表示特征。如:We are moving house next week. 我们下星期搬家。(are moving是进行时态,表示动作)The story of their suffering is moving. 他们的苦难经历很感动人。(is moving是系表结构,表示特征)

2】过去分词作表语,其逻辑主语为句子的主语,表示主语所处的状态。如:

The phone call and the examination are finished. 通话和检查结束了。

On the way home Mathilde looked down at her dress and saw that the necklace was gone. 在回家的路上,玛蒂尔德低头朝衣服上一看,发现项链不见了。

When the singer came inthe guests were all seated. 歌唱家进来时,客人们都已就座。

He seemed quite delighted at the idea. 听了这想法他似乎很高兴。

The door remained unlocked. 门仍然锁着。

The road was lined on both sides with trees. 大道两旁都种着树。

She looked disappointed. 她显得很失望。

He was lost in thought. 他陷入沉思。

Tom was hidden in the tree while Jack was looking for him. 当杰克到处找他时,汤姆躲在树上。

The library is usually closed at 5:00 in the afternoon. 图书馆通常下午五点关门。

Della said,“My hair is gone for you. 德拉说:“我卖了头发是为了你。”

〖注〗过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:被动语态表示一个具体的动作,只能用助动词be;过去分词作表语表示主语的特点或处的状态,其连系动词不仅可以用be,而且还可以用getbecomegrowturn等等,请比较下列句子:

The glass is broken。玻璃杯破了。(状态)

It was broken by my sister. 它是我妹妹打破的。(动作)

The street is crowded with people. 街上很拥挤。(状态)

They were crowded into one room. 他们被塞到一间屋子里。(动作)

The ground is covered with snow. 地上到处是雪。(状态)

This point has not been covered yet. 这一点还没有谈到。(动作)

4、状语:

分词短语作状语,分词短语用作状语,表示动作的时间、原因、条件、结果、让步、方式、伴随或动作发生的背景或情况;这类状语大多数放在句子前部,也有一些放在句子后部或插在句子中间。分词短语作状语相当于一个相应的状语从句,其逻辑主语为主句的主语。逻辑主语与分词之间为主动关系,则用现在分词;逻辑主语与分词为被动关系,则使用过去分词,有时使用现在分词的被动式。

1)时间状语——现在分词短语作时间状语时一般用在句首,前面若带有whilewhenuntilonce等词时既可位于句首,也可位于句尾,此时时间意义更为明确。过去分词短语作状语时说明谓语所表示的动作发生的背景或情况,与逻辑主语之间为被动关系。如:

Hearing the newsthey were much surprised. =When they heard the news听到这个消息,他们十分惊恐。

I learned a lot while serving in the army. while I was serving我在部队服役期间学到了不少东西。

Arriving at the schoolI found my classmates already in their placesready to begin the class. 我到学校就发现,我的同学都已坐在座位上,准备上课了。

Hearing the cry for helpthey all rushed out. 听到呼救声,他们都冲了出去。

Seen from the hillthe park looks very beautiful. (=When it is seen) 从山上看,这个公园非常美丽。

Don't speak until spoken to. (=Don’t speak until you are spoken to. )当别人和你讲话时,你才能讲话。

Asked to restDr Bethune continued to work without raising his head. (=When he was asked to rest)当有人让白求恩大夫休息时,他头也不抬地继续工作。

Water does not boil until heated to 100. until it is heated水加热到摄氏100度时才会汽化。

Armed with a torchthe vicar went up into the clock tower to see what was the matter. 牧师带着手电筒走到钟楼去看看出了什么事。

2)原因状语——分词短语用作原因状语,相当于原因状语从句。如:

Being illhe couldn't come to school today. As he was ill,…由于生病,他今天不能来上学。

Not knowing her addresswe couldn't get in touch with her. As we didn't know her address由于不知道她的地址,我们没法和她联系。

Considering that Charles would be sentenced to deathhe went to a chemist’s shop and bought some special medicine. 考虑到查尔斯会被判处死刑,于是他到一家药店去买了一种特殊的药。

Knowing that she was an experienced teacherthey often asked her for help. 他们得知她是一位有经验的老师,就常常向她求教。

The poor of the cities and the peasants in the countryhaving lived such a hard life for so longtook up their guns and knives and began to kill the rich nobles. 城市贫民和乡村里的农民由于长期以来过着非常艰苦的生活,拿起刀枪开始杀起富有的贵族来了。

Well known for his expert advicehe was able to help a great number of people with their personal affairs. (=As he was well know for his …)他足智多谋是人人皆知的,因此他能帮助很多人解决私人疑案。

Brought up in an actor’s familyChaplin learned to dance at an early age. (=As he was brought up in an actor’s family)由于出身于演员的家庭,卓别林小时候就学会舞蹈了。

Knocked off her bike by a boythe girl was badly injured. (=As she was knocked off her bike by a boy)由于被一个男孩从自行车上撞下来,这女孩受了重伤。

Greatly touched by his teacher’s wordsthe boy did a lot of things to help his classmates. (=Because he was greatly touched…,…/He was greatly touched by…,so the boy did )这个男孩被老师的话深深地打动了,所以做了很多事来帮助同班同学。

3)作条件状语——分词短语作条件状语时一般置于句首,前面若带有连词ifunless时也可置于句尾,此时条件意义更为明确。如:

Other waste may be thrown into the seaeither 19 kilometres from landor more than 40 kilometres from landdepending on the nature of the materials. 其它的废物倒入海中,或者离陆地19公里,或者离陆地40多公里,这取决于这些材料的性质。

Thinking it over carefullyyou will not take the job. If you think仔细考虑一下,你就不会接受这份工作。

You will never make progress unless studying hard. =unless you study hard. 你除非努力学习,否则是不会取得进步。

Given more timewe can finish the work successfully. =If we are given more timewe…如果再给我们一些时间,我们就可以成功地完成这项工作。

United we stand; divided we fall. If we are unitedwe standif we are dividedwe fall. 团结我们就能胜利,分离我们就会失败。

Given necessary helphe may fulfill his task in time. (=If he is given necessary help) 如果给他必要的帮助,他可能及时完成任务。

Taken in timethe medicine will be quite effective. 这药如吃得及时的话是很有效的。

4)结果状语——分词短语作结果状语时一般位于句尾,有时分词前可带onlythus,此时结果意义更加明确,相当于so that引导的结果状语从句。如:

He hit a parked carthus breaking one of his legs. =so that he broke他撞上了一辆停着的汽车,结果摔断了一条腿。

The fish have very sharp teeth; they can eat a person in two minutesleaving only the bones. 这种鱼牙齿锐利,能两分钟吃掉一个人,只留下一堆骨头。

He had a high fever when he was threemaking him completely blind. 他三岁时发过一次高烧,使得他全部失明了。

Bruce is now traveling in Francemaking it impossible to get in touch with him. 现在布鲁斯在法国旅行,因此不可能同他取得联系了。

Fifteen million trees had been blown down by the high windsblocking roadspaths and railway lines. 1,500万棵树被狂风刮倒,把大小道路和铁路都堵塞了。

At nightroads are brightly litmaking people and traffic more freely. 夜晚灯光把马路照得很亮,使行人和车辆畅通无阻。

His parents diedleaving him a lot of money. 他的父母亲死了,给他留下了很多钱。

The forest fire lasted for two weekscausing 15 deaths in all. 森林大火持续了两周,总共死亡十五人。

5)让步状语——分词短语作让步状语时可加althoughthougheven ifeven thoughwhetheror等连词,或转换成让步状语从句。如:

Being illhe still came to class. Though he was illhe still came to class. 他虽然生病,但还是来上课了。

He is unhappy though having a lot of money. He is unhappy though he has a lot of money. 他尽管很富,但不幸福。

Whether supported or notI'll go on with it. I'l1 go on with it whether (I'm) supported or not. 不论得到支持与否,我都将把这件事继续下去。

Though warned of the stormthe farmers were still working in the fields. (=Though they had been warned,) 虽然农民们已被告诫将有风暴,但他们仍然在地里干活。

6)方式状语——表示谓语动作发生的方式,一般不能改为一个分句。如:

The children reviewed their lessons in the classroomreadingwriting or listening to the tape. 孩子们在教室里复习功课,读书,写字或听录音。

It has equipment for making electricity from sunshineusing very broad sun panels. 它有太阳能发电设备,用的是很宽大的太阳能电池帆板。

The sperm whale therefore has to look for the squid using sound waves. 因此,巨头鲸就只得利用声波来寻找鱿鱼。

In Arab countriesyou eat using the fingers of your right handthe left hand is not used at all. 在阿拉伯国家,人们用右手的手指吃饭,左手是根本不用的。

A crowd of children ran out of the classroomlaughing and talking merrily. 一群小孩有说有笑地从教室里跑了出来。

Dr Watson and I will spend the night locked in your room. 我和华生医生将锁在你的房里过夜。

7)伴随状语——分词短语作伴随状语多位于句末,有时也放在句首,表示其动作或情况与谓语所表示的动作同时发生或存在,相当于一个并列句或并列谓语动词。如:

First they clean the stones with brushes using buckets of a weak chemical. (=First they clean the stones with brushes. Then they brush the stones with buckets of a weak chemical. )首先,用刷子蘸上桶里的一种稀薄的化学药剂把石头清洗干净。

You can write this sentence with another construction using “too” and an infinitive. (= You can use “too” and an infinitive and write this sentence with another construction. )你还用too加不定式这一结构来写这个句子。

Dr Baker replied to the invitationaccepting it. 贝克博士还是答复了请柬,接受了邀请。(accepting it相当于and accepted it)

The boss went to see Mr. Kingpraising him for his excellent work. =and praised him…)老板去看望了金先生,表扬了他出色的工作。

Dr. Baker lay in bedwondering why he had been invited. (=and wondered…)贝克博士躺在床上,对于为什么他会受到邀请,心里感到很纳闷。

Pointing to the young planthe asked me if that was the type of plant we had seen in the film. 他指着那株小树苗问我,那是否就是我们在电影中看到过的那种植物。

Taking a taxiwe hurried to the airport. 我们坐上出租车,就匆忙赶赴机场。

 “Does your uncle keep pets?” Holmes askedpointing to the milk. “你的叔叔饲养小动物吗?”福尔摩斯指着那碗牛奶问道。

But the studios which he started are still busy todayproducing more and more interesting films. 但是他创办的制片厂至今仍然很繁忙,还在生产越来越多的有趣的影片。

Some people have the wrong attitude towards people with disabilitiesconsidering them to be stupid. 有些人对待残疾人的态度不对,认为他们愚蠢。

Piles of stones lie in a corner of the courtyardwaiting to be replaced. 院子的角落里放着一堆堆的石头,准备作更换之用。

It is quite possible that the thief might put some meat in your baghoping you will be caught and called a thief. 很可能这个小偷会把肉放进你的包里,希望人们抓住你,叫你小偷。

The old man walked with difficultysupported by his son. 那位老人由他的儿子搀扶,艰难地走着。

The girl sat alone for some timelost in thought. 那女孩单独在那儿坐了好一会儿,陷入了沉思。

〖注〗过去分词作状语表示完成和被动,着重于事实或状态,而现在分词的被动式着重于与主句谓语动作同时的或正在进行的动作,现在分词的完成被动式则强调该动作发生在主句谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

Having been shown the labthey were taken to see the library. 他们在被带领参观了实验室以后,又被带领去看图书室去了。(强调动作发生在主句谓语动作之前)

Caught in the rainhe was wet all over. 由于淋了雨,他全身湿透了。(着重于说明事实)

Being caught in the rainhe was wet all over. 他淋着雨,全身湿透了。(强调同时发生)

2】现在分词短语作状语的时间关系:现在分词短语作状语相当于相应的状语从句,其逻辑主语为主句的主语。该分词与逻辑主语为主动意义时,用一般式作状语,表示与句中谓语同时发生的动作或状态;用现在分词的完成时表示该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前:

Walking in the parkshe saw an old friend. 当她在公园散步时,她看到她的一个老朋友。(主动,同时)

Being blindhow could they see the elephant?因为他们是瞎子,他们怎能看得见大象呢?(主动状态,同时)

Having been separated from other continents for millions of yearsAustralia has many plants and animals not found anywhere else in the world. 由于同其它大陆分离已有数百万年之久,所以澳大利亚有许多动植物是世界上任何其它地方所没有的。(被动,之前)

Having been there many timeshe offered to introduce the history of the country. 由于他多次去过那个国家,他主动提出为我们介绍那个国家的历史。(主动,之前)

Having put up the tentthey started to cook their supper. 搭好帐篷以后,他们就开始做晚饭。(主动,之前)

The had come from Englandhaving heard the strange news that Dr ManetteLucie’s fatherwas alive and was living in Paris. 他们从英国赶来是因为听到一个离奇的消息——有人说露西的父亲曼奈特医生还活着,而且住在巴黎。

Having finished his workhe went home. 他干完工作就回家了。

Having had supperhe went out for a walk. 吃过了晚饭,他出去散步。

Having finished exercisesTom watched TV. 做完了作业,汤姆就看电视了。

Having brushed his teethMr Brown came downstairs for breakfast. 刷完了牙,布朗先生下楼吃早饭。

Having drunk two glasses of waterJack felt a little better. 喝了两杯水,杰克感到好一点了。

Having lived in Beijing for yearshe knows the city quite well. 在北京住了多年,他对这个城市很熟悉。

3】现在分词的被动式:强调动作正被进行,完成被动式强调动作在主句谓语动词所表达的动作之前完成。如:

There are also records of gymnastics being performed in China and some other Asian countries. 中国及亚洲的其它一些国家也有体操表演的记载。

He asked who was the man being operated on?他问这时被手术的人是谁?

This is one of the experiments being carried on in our laboratory. 这是我们实验室里正在进行的实验之一。

These are sold at reduced pricesthe defects always being pointed out to the customers. 这些都减价出售,毛病都向顾客指出。

Being asked to give a performanceshe couldn't very well refuse. 有人请她表演一个节目,她不好拒绝。

Being protected by a thick wallthey felt they were quite safe. 有一堵厚墙挡着,他们感到很安全。

4】现在分词的完成被动式

Dr Manettehaving been kept a prisoner in the Bastille for many yearshad recently been set free. 曼奈特医生被关在巴士底狱许多年,最近被释放了

Having been given such a good chancehow could he let it pass away?人家既然给了他这样一个好机会,他怎能轻易放过呢?

Having been praised by the teacherthe boy was very pleased. 受到了老师的表扬,这男孩非常高兴。

Having been translated into Englishthe book was widely read by EnglishAmerican and Australian people. 这本书译成英语后,在英、美、澳具有广泛的读者。

5】现在分词的悬垂结构:现在分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语应与句子的主语保持一致。但有些表示说话者语气或态度的分词短语的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,它们的逻辑主语可以是除主语以外的任何人或根本不需要说明而独立存在,这些分词短语常常用来作插入语。常见的这些短语有:generally speaking一般说来;judging from/by根据……判断;strictly speaking严格地说;exactly speaking准确地说;frankly speaking坦率地说;roughly speaking粗略地说;briefly speaking简要地说;considering everything考虑到各种情况。如:

Generally speakingthe human race has the information and experience to do this. 一般说来,人们已经有这方面的知识和经验了。

Generally speakingnewspapers follow the American way. 一般来说,报纸遵循美国方式。

Considering everythingthe plan is worth trying. 考虑到各种情况,这项计划值得一试。

Judging by the number of copies soldthe book is a great success. 从卖出的册数来看,这本书是很成功的。

Strictly speakingyou didn’t pass the exam. 严格地说,你没有通过考试。

Frankly speakingI don’t enjoy the performance. 坦率地说,我并不喜欢这场演出。

Exactly speakingthey will arrive at 8:14 pm. 准确地说,他们将于下午814分到达。

7】分词短语用作状语应注意的几个问题

①表示时间、原因、条件、结果、让步等意义的分词短语相当于一个相应的状语从句,表示伴随动作或伴随情况的分词短语相当于一个并列分句或并列谓语。

②分词短语的逻辑主语应当是句子的主语,否则,就应在分词短语前面加上逻辑主语。我们不说Looking out of the windowseveral children were playing about in the garden. 由于Looking的逻辑主语并不是several children,因此主谓逻辑关系不成立,应把这句改成Looking…,I found several children playing,这样Looking成了I的动作,合乎逻辑关系。

③分词短语所表示的动作和谓语所表示的动作同时发生,或紧接着在前或在后发生,往往用whenwhile+分词这一结构:

Don't talk while eating. 吃饭时别说话。

Be careful when crossing. 横穿时要小心。

〖注〗表示伴随的动作和谓语动作同时发生和进行,通常位于句尾。

④分词短语表示否定意思时,not总是放在分词之前,不能放在分词之后:

Not knowing where the school wasshe asked the police the way. 不知道那所学校的所在,她向警察问路。(不能说Knowing not)

Not being good at spoken Englishshe decides to spend a year in America. 由于她的英语口语不好,她决定到美国住一年。

⑤如果分词短语所表示的动作与主句谓语的动作同时发生,分词用一般式;如要强调分词所表示的动作发生在谓语所表示的动作之前,用分词的完成式;如果分词与句子主语具有被动关系,要用过去分词。如果强调已经完成的被动动作,则用现在分词的被动式:

He hurried awaylooking behind as he went. 他匆匆离去,一边走一边往后看。(lookinghurried同时发生,指过去。)

Hearing the newshe was greatly surprised. 听到这个消息后他大吃一惊。(hearingwas surprised之前发生。)

Having been there many timeshe offered to be our guide. 这地方他去过好多次,因此他主动提出作我们的向导。

Not having studied hardhe failed in the exam. 因为没有用功学习,他考试没有及格。

Not having been there beforehe knows little about the place. 他以前没有去过那儿,因此他对那个地方了解甚少。

Being asked to give a talkshe couldn't very well refuse. 有人请她作一发言,她不好拒绝。(being askedshe是被动关系,表示正在进行的动作。)

Having been given such a good chancehow could he miss it?人家给了她这样好的一个机会,她怎么能轻易放过?(having been givenhe是被动关系,用完成形式,表示发生在could miss以前。)

(四)介词with/without+名词/代词+分词短语

这一结构在语法上叫做with的复合结构。这种结构在句中常用作状语,表示伴随动作或伴随情况。有时也可作定语。分词的形式取决于该动词与前面名词之间的关系,是主动关系用现在分词,是被动关系用过去分词,如表示一个被动的正在进行的动作,则用现在分词的被动形式(being done)。如:

There was also a gun and a thin piece of rope with the end tied in a circle. 还有一杆枪和一根细绳,绳子的末端扎成一个圆圈。(定语)

Do you see the man with a towel tied around the head?你看到头上围着一条毛巾的那个男人吗? (定语)

The old man with his eyes looking at the sky came from Shandong the day before yesterday. 眼睛望着天空的那位老人是前天从山东来的。(定语)

In parts of Asia you must not sit with your feet pointing at another person. 在亚洲的某些地方,你不可以坐着把脚跷起对着别人。(方式)

The woman stood by the gatewith a baby held in her arms. 那个妇女站在大门旁,怀中抱着一个婴儿。(伴随)

I can't fix my mind on my work with the children playing so noisily outside my window. 由于孩子们在窗外如此吵闹,我无法专心于工作。(伴随)

He usually work in his study with the door locked. 他通常锁着门在书房工作。(方式)

With a boy leading the waythey started towards the village. 由一个男孩带路,他们朝村子走去。(伴随)

Possibly this person died without anyone knowing where the coins were hidden. 可能这个人死了,也就没人知道那些硬币藏在什么地方了。(结果)

He is too serious without anyone getting near to him. 他太严肃了,没有人亲近他。(结果)

六、不定式、动名词和现在分词的区别

(一)作定语时的区别

1、不定式与分词作定语时的区别主要表现在时态上,不定式作定语通常指未来的动作,现在分词作定语时指正在发生的动作,过去分词作定语时指已经完成的或被动的动作。如:

He has a letter to write. 他有一封信要写。

Do you know the boy standing under the tree?你认识站在那棵树下的男孩吗?

Have you read any stories written by Lu Xun?你读过鲁迅写的小说吗?

2、注意以下三种后置定语的区别,虽都表示被动,但各自有其独特的含义。

1This is a problem discussed. 这是一个已经讨论了的问题。(已经)

2This is a problem being discussed. 这是一个正在讨论的问题。(正在)

3This is a problem to be discussed. 这是一个需要讨论的问题。(将要)

3、现在分词与动名词作定语时的主要区别是:

①现在分词表示它所修饰的名词的动作,二者是逻辑上的主谓关系,读时都要重读。如:a sleeping boy=a boy who is sleeping一个睡觉的男孩;the boiling water=the water that is boiling开水

②动名词作定语时通常表示它所修饰的名词的用途,二者不存在逻辑上的主谓关系,读时只重读动名词。如:a sleeping car=a car for sleeping一节卧车;drinking water=water for drinking饮用水

③分词作定语时可以后置,而动名词只能放在所修饰名词的前边。如:Do you have any reading materials?你有阅读材料吗?Those smoking should put out their cigarettes. 那些抽烟的人应当灭掉他们的烟头。

(二)分词和不定式作宾语补足语的区别:

现在分词作宾语补足语表示主动和正在进行的动作(说明当时的情景),过去分词作宾语补足语表示被动和已经完成的动作。而不定式作宾语补足语,表示其动作相对于谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生,或指事情的全过程。如:

I saw her coming in. 我看见她走进来。(说明她进来时的情景)

I found the window broken. 我发现窗子破了。

I must have my watch repaired. 我必须把这表拿去修理。

Then the teacher called on me to answer the question. 这时老师就叫我回答这个问题。

Who persuaded you to join this organization?谁劝你参加这个组织的?

I want him to lend me some money. 我想要他给我借些钱。

(三)不定式与分词作状语时的区别:

1、不定式作目的、结果状语,可改为相应的从句,注意比较:

I get up very earlyso as / in orderto catch the early bus. 我起得很早,为的是赶上早班车。(目的)

He rose early so as to be in time for the first lesson. 他一早就起了床,以便及时赶上第一节课。(目的)

I was too tired to walk on any further. 我太累了,一点也再不能走了。(结果)

The book is too difficult for beginners to understand. 这本书太难了,初学者无法理解。(结果)

The room is too small to put the shelf in. 房间太小了,这个架子放不进去。(结果)

〖注〗位于notneveronlyallbut等副词之后时,不定式没有否定意义,这时句中的too可解释为“very”。如:

Swimming is not too difficult to learn. 游泳并不太难学。

I’m only too pleased to help you. 我非常愿意帮助你。(心理活动形容词)

He is too wise not to see that. 他很聪明,不会不明白那件事。

2、分词作状语,表示时间、原因、结果或伴随情况,注意比较:

Working in the factorywe learned a lot from the workers. 在工厂工作时,我们从工人们那儿学到了许多东西。(时间状语)

Hearing a cry for helphe rushed out. 他听到一声呼救声时,就跑了出去。(时间状语)

Heatedwater will be changed into vapour. 水一加热就会变成蒸汽。(时间状语)

Being illhe went home. 他病了,就回家了。(原因状语)

Greatly inspired by the teacher's wordsI have made up my mind to work at English even harder. 老师讲的话使我受到很大鼓舞,我下定决心更加努力学习英语。(原因状语)

He dropped the platebreaking it into a hundred pieces. 他把盘子掉在地上打碎了。(结果状语)

七、动名词的复合结构:有时一个动名词短语前面可以加一个物主代词,或名词的所有格形式来表示这个动名词逻辑上的主语。这种结构可以用在主语、表语、宾语中。如:

Their coming to help us was a great encouragement to us. 他们来帮助我们对我们是一种鼓励。

What’s troubling them is their not having enough money. 使他们麻烦的事情是他们没有足够的钱。

Do you mind my reading your paper? 我可以看看你的论文吗?

〖注〗如果这个结构不在句子开头,可以用人称代词的宾格或名词的普通格。如果动名词的逻辑主语是无生命的东西,就只能用普通格,不能用所有格。如:

I don’t mind Xiao Ming / him going there. 我不介意小明/他到那儿去。

Usually at the beginning of schoolthe noise of desks being opened and closedand lessons repeated at the top of the children’s voice could be heard out in the street. 通常在上课前,在街上就可远远听到课桌被打开或被关上、孩子们拉开嗓门反复读课文的声音。

八、非谓语动词的否定形式:否定词notnever应放在非谓语动词短语之前,但如果有逻辑主语时,not应放在逻辑主语之后。如:

Mother often tell him not / never to play with fire. 妈妈经常教他不要玩火。

Please excuse me for not being able to help you. 请原谅我没有能够帮助你。

Do you mind me not going with you?你介意我不能和你一块去吗?

It’s hard for me not to make any spelling mistakes. 要我不出拼写错误很难。

九、非谓语动词的逻辑主语:

1、不定式作主语、表语和宾语时表示普通行为时一般没有逻辑主语或没有必要说明;表示具体行为时,其逻辑主语往往是句子的主语或根据上下文判断。不定式作定语和目的状语时,其逻辑主语是句子的主语;作宾语补足语时,逻辑主语是宾语。不定式的复合结构的逻辑主语为其前的代词或名词。如:

I pretended not to have seen her. Ito have seen的逻辑主语。)

We invited Professor Wang to give us a talk on the international situation. Professor Wanggive us …的逻辑主语)

They are said to be building houses in that area now. They to be building的逻辑主语)

It is an honour for me to be invited to the party. meto be invited的逻辑主语)

The suit is too large to wear. to wear的逻辑主语不清楚,也没必要弄清楚)

There are a lot of things to be done. thingsto be done的逻辑主语)

〖注〗下列句子中,不定式与它所修饰的名词(代词)构成动宾关系,同时又与句中另一个名词(代词)有主谓关系,这时用主动形式。但如果不定式不与句中的另一个名词或代词构成主谓关系,在表示被动意义时仍应用不定式的被动式。如:

I have an important meeting to attend. 我有一个重要的会议要参加。

He gave me some books to read. 他给了我几本书看。

We found the report easy to understand. 我们发现这报告容易理解。

He has no one to help. 他没有人可帮忙。

2、动名词的逻辑主语一般是句子的主语。如为复合结构,逻辑主语就是动名词前的物主代词、人称代词或名词普通格或所有格。如:

They are interested in climbing mountains. climbing的逻辑主语是“They”)

He took a great delight in helping others. helping的逻辑主语是“He”)

Excuse me for coming late. coming的逻辑主语是“me”)

Everybody dislikes being laughed at. being laughed at的逻辑主语是“Everybody”)

Do you mind my opening the window? opening the window的逻辑主语是“my”)

3、分词作状语时,句子主语是现在分词动作的执行者,分词与主语间是主动关系;过去分词作状语时,句子主语是过去分词动作的承受者,分词与主语间的关系是被动关系。如:

Entering the officeI picked up the telephone and called Bob. 一走进办公室,我就拿起电话找鲍勃。(Ientering the office的逻辑主语。)

Seen from the spacethe earth looks blue. 从太空看,地球看起来呈蓝色。(the earthseen from the space的逻辑主语。)

十、非谓语动词与谓语的时间关系:

1、不定式一般式:表示目的状语和结果状语发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后;作补足语与谓语动作同时发生;表示原因时,发生在谓语动作之前。如特别强调,用完成式。如:

I hope to get an English dictionary. 我希望买到一本英语辞典。(之后)

The students helped the teacher go through their exercises. 同学们帮教师检查他们的练习。(同时)

I’m glad to hear that he has arrived. 我很高兴得知他已来了。(之前)

2、不定式进行式:表示的动作与谓语动作同时发生,强调正在进行。也可以在谓语动作之后发生。如:

They are said to be building a bridge. 据说他们正在建一座桥。(同时)

I wish to be studying in the same school with you. 我希望能和你在同一所学校学习。(之后)

3、不定式完成式:强调在谓语动作之前已经完成的动作。如:

She seemed to have heard about it yesterday. 她似乎昨天就已经听说了。(之前)

4、动名词一般式:表示一般性动作(即不是明确地表示在过去、现在或将来发生的动作),或是与谓语所表示的动作同时发生。如:

They are all interested in climbing mountains. 他们都对爬山感兴趣。(一般性动作)

He took a great delight in helping others. 他总是乐于帮助别人。(一般性动作)

5、动名词完成式:表示发生在谓语动作之前。如:

We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time. 我们因提前完成工作而受到表扬。(之前)

〖注〗以下句子结构中的动名词一般不用完成式:

Excuse me for coming late. 原谅我来晚了。

On hearing the newsthey burst into tears. 一听到这消息,他们嚎啕大哭起来。

Thank you for giving us so much good advice. 谢谢你给了我们这么多的建议。

6、现在分词一般式:表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或者在说话时正在进行。如:

These are the important problems troubling them. 这些都是使他们烦恼的重要的问题。

The large building built down the street will be a hospital. 街上修建的那栋大楼将是一家医院。

7、现在分词完成式:强调分词的动作发生在谓语动作之前。如:

Having been shown the labswe were taken to see the library. 被带去参观了实验室以后,我们又被带去看了看图书馆。

8、过去分词一般式:表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生,或者没有一定的时间性。与逻辑主语为被动关系。如:

Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa. 受邀参加晚会的大多数艺术家来自于南非。

I must get my bike repaired. 我得将自行车修好。

This is one of the factories built in the 1960s. 这是建于二十世纪六十年代的工厂之一。

高考试题归类

       不定式作宾语

1. He pretended ____ me when I passed by. 1989

       A. not to see          B. not seeing         C. to not see         D. having not seen

2. Last summer I took a course on ____. 1990

       A. how to make dresses      B. how dresses be made

C. how to be made dresses      D. how dresses to be made

3. —The light in the office is still on.

 —OhI forgot ____. 1991

       A. turning it off     B. turn it off          C. to turn it off      D. having turned it off

4. There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind ____ to buy. 1992

       A. what     B. whichC. how      D. where

5. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. 1992

       A. to be taken    B. to take   C. being taken       D. taking

6. We agreed ____ here but so far she hasn't turned up yet. 1995—19

       A. having met    B. meeting C. to meet  D. to have met

7. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. 1997

A. to go     B. having gone      C. goingD. to have gone

8. I’ve worked with children beforeso I know what ____ in my new job. 2000

       A. expectedB. to expectC. to be expecting D. expects

9. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. NMET2002

A. whoB. when     C. how   D. what

10. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. NMET2002

A. it what to do with B. what to do it with      C. what to do with it D. to do what with it

    不定式作主()语补足语

1. Tell him ____ the window. 1986

       A. to shut not         B. not to shut         C. to not shut    D. not shut

2. Though he often made his little sister ____today he was made ____ by his little sister. 1987

       A. cry; to cry         B. crying; crying    C. cry; cry        D. to cry; cry

3. They would not allow him ____ across the enemy line. 1987

       A. to risk going     B. risking to go  C. for risk to go    D. risk going

4. They knew her very well. They had seen her ____ up from childhood. 1988

       A. grow     B. grew     C. was growing     D. to grow

5. John was made ____ the truck for a week as a punishment. 1991

       A. to wash B. washing C. wash     D. to be washing

6. Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after dinking. 1991

       A. never to drive    B. to never drive    C. never driving     D. never drive

7. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. 1993

       A. to have invented B. inventing          C. to inventD. having invented

8. Paul doesn't have to be made ____. He always works hard. 1995

       A. learn     B. to learn  C. learned  D. learning

9. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the streetbut his mother told him ____. 1995

       A. not toB. not to doC. not do itD. do not to

10. The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. 1996

      A. to eat not          B. eating not          C. not to eat          D. not eating

11. Robert is said ____ abroadbut I don’t know what country he studied in. 1999

       A. to have studied B. to study  C. to be studying    D. to have been studying

12. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. 【京2003

       A. don’t make        B. not makeC. not making        D. not to make

       不定式作定语

1. I'm hungry. Get me something ____. 1979

       A. eat        B. to eat     C. eatingD. for eating

不定式作表语

1. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier____it more difficult. 1999

       A. not makeB. not to make   C. not making        D. do not make

2. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couplebut it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. NMET2002

A. to see     B. to be seen          C. seeing    D. seen

       不定式作状语

1. The chair looks rather hardbut in fact it is very comfortable to ____. 1988

       A. sit         B. sit on     C. be satD. be sat on

2. Tom kept quiet about the accident ____ lose his job. 1990

       A. so not as to       B. so as not to   C. so as to not   D. not so as to

3. She reached the top of the hill and stopped ____ on a big rock by the side of the path. 1990

       A. to have rested   B. resting   C. to rest          D. rest

4. ____late in the morningBob turned off the alarm. 2001春】

A. To sleepB. Sleeping C. Sleep     D. Having slept

5. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ____ whether he was going in the right direction. NMET2003春】

       A. seeing    B. having seen        C. to have seen  D. to see

       现在分词作主(宾)语补足语

1. The next morning she found the man ____ in beddead. 1986

       A. lying     B. lie         C. lay        D. laying

2. The salesman scolded the girl caught ____ and let her off. 1992

       A. to have stolen    B. to be stealing     C. to steal  D. stealing

3. The missing boys were last seen ____ near the river. 1994

       A. playing  B. to be playing     C. play      D. to play

4. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ____in the kitchen. NMET2003

       A. smoke    B. smoking C. to smokeD. smoked

5. Why did you go back to the shop?

I left my friend ____ there. NMET2003春】

A. waiting          B. to wait          C. wait       D. waits

       现在分词作定语

1. Do you know the boy ____ under the big tree? 1989

       A. lay         B. lain        C. laying     D. lying

2. There was a terrible noise ____ the sudden burst of light. 1989

       A. followedB. following          C. to be followed   D. being followed

3. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later. ” 1999

       A. read       B. reads      C. to read          D. reading

4. The picture ____ on the wall is painted by my nephew. 2000春】

  A. having hung   B. hanging          C. hangs       D. being hung

    现在分词作原因状语

1. ____ a replyhe decided to write again. 1992

       A. Not receiving    B. Receiving not     C. Not having received   D. Having not received

2. ____ such heavy pollution alreadyit may now be too late to clean up the river. 2001

       A. Having suffered B. SufferingC. To sufferD. Suffered

       现在分词作伴随状语

1. The secretary worked late into the night____ a long speech for the president. 1991

       A. to prepare         B. preparingC. preparedD. was preparing

2. “Can't you read?” Mary said ____ to the notice. 1993

       A. angrily pointing        B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing

3. The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks____ that he has enjoyed his stay here. 1994

       A. having added     B. to addC. adding   D. added

4. The manager____ his factory’s products were poor in qualitydecided to give his workers further training. NMET2003春】

       A. knowing B. know     C. to know D. being known

       现在分词作结果状语

1. European football is played in 80 countries____ it the most popular sport in the world. 1998

       A. making          B. makes    C. made     D. to make

       过去分词作补足语

1. —Good morning. Can I help you?

 —I'd like to have this package ____ Madam. 1989

       A. be weighed       B. to be weighed    C. to weighD. weighed

2. The murderer was brought inwith his hands ____ behind his back. 1991

       A. being tied          B. having tied    C. to be tied          D. tied

3. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ____ the next year. 2000

       A. carry outB. carrying out   C. carried out         D. to carry out

       过去分词作定语

1. What's the language ____ in Germany? 1983

       A. speakingB. spoken  C. be spoken         D. to speak

2. Most of the people ____ to the party were famous scientists. 1987

       A. invited   B. to invite C. being invited      D. inviting

3. Most of the artists ____ to the party were from South Africa. 1990

       A. invited   B. to invite C. being invited     D. had been invited

4. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 1994

A. having written   B. to be written     C. being written     D. written

5. The Olympic Games____ in 776 B. C. did not include women players until 1912. 1997

A. first played       B. to be first played       C. first playing      D. to be first playing

过去分词作表语

1. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour. 1998

       A. pay        B. paying    C. paid       D. to pay

2. As we joined the big crowd I got ____ from my friends. 2001

       A. lost        B. spared    C. separatedD. missed

       过去分词作状语

1. ____ some officialsNapoleon inspected his army. 1984

       A. Followed          B. Followed by      C. Being followed D. Having been followed by

2. ____ more attentionthe trees could have grown better. 1990

       A. GivenB. To give  C. Giving   D. Having given

3. ____ in thoughthe almost ran into the car in front of him. 1996

      A. Losing   B. Having lost        C. Lost      D. To lose

4. The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it. NMET2002

A. begins    B. having begun     C. beginning          D. begun

5. ____ timehe’ll make a first-class tennis player. 【京2003

       A. Having given      B. To give          C. Giving    D. Given

       动名词作动词宾语

1. Do you remember ____ me at a party last year? 1983

       A. meet     B. to meet  C. meeting D. met

2. People couldn't help ____ the foolish emperor in the procession. 1983

       A. laugh at B. to laugh at         C. laughing at    D. laughing on

3. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ____. 1987

       A. catchingB. to be caught      C. being caught     D. to catch

4. They would not allow him ____ across the enemy line. 1987

       A. to risk going     B. risking to go      C. for risk to go    D. risk going

5. She didn't remember ____ him before. 1988

       A. having met    B. have metC. to meet  D. to having met

6. I can hardly imagine Peter ____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. 1991

       A. sail       B. to sailC. sailing   D. to have sailed

7. I would appreciate ____ back this afternoon. 1992

       A. you to call         B. you call  C. your calling   D. you're calling

8. —I usually go there by train.

 —Why not ____ by boat for a change? 1992

       A. to try going       B. trying to go       C. to try and go     D. try going

9. —You were brave to raise objections at the meeting.

 —Wellnow I regret ____ that. 1995

       A. to do     B. to be doing    C. to have done     D. having done

       动名词作介词宾语

1. ____ I went to the railway station to see my friend off. 1991

       A. After eating quickly my dinner    B. After my quickly eating dinner

C. After eating my dinner quickly    D. After eating my quickly dinner

2. —I must apologize for ____ ahead of time.

—That's all right. 1994

       A. letting you not know       B. not letting you know

C. letting you know not       D. letting not you know

3. One learns a language by making mistakes and ____them. 2001春】

A. correct  B. correcting         C. correctsD. to correct

       动名词固定搭配

1. Only one of these books is ____. 1986

       A. worth to read    B. worth being read C. worth of reading D. worth reading

2. —What do you think of the book?

 —Ohexcellent. It's worth ____ a second time. 1989

       A. to read  B. to be read         C. reading  D. being read

       混合使用

1. How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?

 The key____ the problem is to meet the demand____ by the customers. 【京2002

    A. to solving; making B. to solving; made C. to solve; making D. to solve; made

 

能力过关检测

1. It does no good ____ anything at such times.

       A. to sayingB. to say     C. being said          D. to be saying

2. Henry doesn’t seem like the same person.

____ so much in the war has made him more thoughtful.

A. For him to see   B. His seeing          C. Having seen   D. To have seen

3. But it is completely untrue____as some people dothat modern education is nothing.

       A. saying    B. said        C. to say    D. to be said

4. It is not unusual for workers in that factory____.

       A. to pay later than a month more    B. to be paid more than a month later

       C. to be paid later than more a month   D. to pay later more than a month

5. ____ to nuclear radiationeven for a short timemay produce variants(变异体)of genes in human bodies.

       A. Being exposed   B. Having exposed C. Exposed D. After being exposed

6. Many people hold the view that it is ____ that has made the children so selfish today.

      A. parents to give in to themB. parents' giving in to them

      C. parents to give them up        D. parents' giving them up

7. Was it ____ the product on CCTV that made the company the focus (焦点) of the country then?

       A. advertised          B. having advertised C. to advertise  D. advertising

8. He didn’t seem to mind ____ TV while he was trying to study.

       A. them to watch   B. that they watch  C. their watching    D. watching

9. A doctor can expect ____ at any hour of the day or night.

       A. calling    B. to call     C. being called   D. to be called

10. The party was successfulbut we thought it a pity not ____ you.

       A. invite     B. to invite  C. inviting   D. to have invited

11. Mr. Carl had no idea ____ to do with the wallet he ____since he was in a hurry to catch his flight back to the USA.

       A. where; had picked up      B. how; has picked up

       C. what; had picked up D. who; picked up

12. Some of the schools in Shanghai have moved one step closer to ____ with the global education community through the world wide web.

       A. being connected B. connected          C. connecting        D. been connected

13. Do you watch TV in the evening?

I’d rather read than watch TV. The programs seem ____ all the time.

       A. to get worse     B. to have got worse C. getting worse        D. to be getting worse

14. The couples went into the forestbut before long they became ____; they walked down different paths.

       A. lost        B. missing  C. separatedD. reunited

15. Blue-collared workers in big cities usually get ____ by the hour.

       A. pay        B. paid       C. paying    D. to pay

16. There are more than twenty waiting rooms at the new airport____ in all 20,000 people.

       A. sitting    B. seating          C. seated    D. being seated

17. By night-fallprotestors(抗议者) against war on Iraq were also on the move in North and South America in a day of marches not ____ since the Vietnam(越南) War caused protests around the world.

       A. seen       B. saw       C. having seen   D. had seen

18. From the dates ____ on the gold coinwe decided that it was made five hundred years ago.

       A. marking B. marked          C. to be marked     D. having been marked

19. Some of the suspects(嫌疑犯)____ refused to answer and kept their moths shut.

       A. questioning        B. being questioned C. questioned         D. to be questioned

20. Does the way you thought of ____ the water clean make any sense?

       A. making          B. to make  C. how to make     D. having made

21. Many things ____ impossible in the past are quite common today.

       A. having being considered       B. considered

       C. to be considered       D. considering

22. How I regret the hours ____ in the woods and fields____ I should have studied!

       A. wasting; where  B. wasted; where   C. wasting; when   D. wasted; when

23. You will find the word “psychology” ____ under “P” in your dictionary.

       A. have listed         B. list         C. listed      D. listing

24. Which do you enjoy ____ your spare timereading or playing chess?

       A. to spend B. spend     C. spendingD. being spent

25. The Yellow River____ to be “the mother river”runs across China like a huge dragon.

       A. saying   B. to sayC. said       D. having said

26. Do you have anything more____sir?

       Noyou can have a rest or do something else.

       A. typed     B. typing    C. to be typed        D. to type

27. Have you checked all the goods____ to the medical workers next week?

       A. sent      B. being sent         C. sending D. to be sent

28. There appeared a____ look on her face on hearing the unexpected news.

       A. worryingB. worried  C. worry    D. worries

29. What are you looking for?

I’m looking for a tool____.

       A. and open the box  B. to open the box with

       C. and opening the box D. with that to open the box

30. The professor could hardly find enough grounds ____ his arguments in favour of the new theory.

       A. to be based on   B. to base on         C. which to base on       D. on which to base

31. The doctor gave me some medicine____ three times a day.

       A. taken     B. to be taken    C. taking    D. to take

32. If the building project____ by the end of this month is delayedthe construction company____ fined.

       A. will be completed; is to be   B. to be completed; will be

      C. being completed; will be      D. completed; was

33. Mr. Smith____ of the ____ speechstarted to read a novel.

       A. tired; boring   B. tiring; bored   C. tired; bored        D. tiring; boring

34. The American soldiers____ Iraq kissed their family goodbye and left in a hurry.

       A. go to      B. to be sent to   C. sending to         D. are sent to

35. I came to understand that pop music is a language of its own____ in lyrics (歌词) and

music.

       A. telling     B. which tell          C. being told          D. told

36. With a great many difficult problems ____the manager felt like an ant on hot sticks.

       A. settled    B. to settle  C. settling          D. being settled

37. ____ their servicethe workers of the hotel are active in learning English.

       A. Improving         B. To improve        C. Improve D. Having improved

38. ____ time and laborcartoonists generally draw the hands of their characters with only 3 fingers and a thumb.

       A. To save  B. Saved     C. Saving          D. Having saved

39. Tom____walked into his room quietly.

       A. took off his shoes    B. not to wake up others

       C. with light steps        D. be afraid of being heard

40. They had all the children well looked after____ their parents relieved(放心).

       A. making  B. being made       C. to make D. made

41. Beijing plans to build more Olympic Games sites in universities____ resources after the Games____.

       A. avoid wasting; will have finished     B. to avoid wasting; have finished

       C. avoiding wasting; have finished       D. to avoid wasting; has finished

42. The boy often gives a satisfactory answer to the teacher’s question____ just a minute.

       A. thought  B. thinking  C. to think  D. having thought

43. The manager of the restaurant was named Johnand____ backI realize that be wasn’t a very good restaurant manager.

       A. looked    B. to look          C. looking          D. look

44. ____ around Tian’anmen Squarethe tourists were taken to visit the Palace Museum.

       A. ShowingB. Having shown   C. Being shown     D. Having been shown

45. ____ full preparationswe decided to put off the meeting till next week.

       A. We did not make       B. Having not made C. We had not made D. Not having made

46. ____ into many languagesthe story is well known all over the world now.

       A. Being translated  B. Having translated C. To be translated D. Having been translated

47. ____ for the terrible accidentas the public thoughtthe mayor felt nervous and was at a loss what to do.

       A. Having blamed B. To blame          C. Being to be blamed   D. Being to blame

48. ____ at failing in the math examJohn wouldn’t like to talk about it to his parents.

       A. Disappointed     B. To be disappointed    C. Disappointing    D. Having disappointed

49. ____ one of the most important inventions of the timethe computer helps people living in different countries to do a lot of things.

       A. Knowing to be   B. It was known    C. Known as          D. As was known to be

50. ____ goodthe food was soon sold out.

       A. Tasted    B. Being tasted   C. Tasting          D. Having tasted

51. What did the doctor say yesterday afternoon?

       The doctor said,“____on timethis medicine will be quite effective.

A. Taking          B. Being taken        C. Taken    D. Having taken

52. He chose the Christmas presents carefully____ all the family members extremely at last.

       A. satisfied B. to satisfy          C. satisfying          D. was satisfied

53. At the end of 2002there were around 3000 foreign printing companies in China____ up around 2 percent of national total.

       A. made     B. to make  C. making   D. having made

54. She returned home from the officeonly____ the door open and something____.

       A. finding; missed B. to find; missed C. to find; missing        D. finding; losing

55. When you have finished reading the novelyou’ll find the hero ____.

       A. a person too perfect to be not true   B. a too perfect person to be true

       C. too perfect a person to be true         D. too perfect a person to be not true

56. Beautiful as they made the garden ____ happilythey had wasted so much.

       A. to liveB. living     C. to look  D. looking

57. The space shuttle Columbia broke into pieces over Texas as it returned to Earth on February 1st2003 ____ all seven astronauts aboard.

       A. having killed      B. killing     C. killed      D. being killed

58. In order not to be disturbedI spent three hours ____ in my study.

       A. locking          B. locked    C. to lock          D. being locked

59. Nearly every great building in Beijing was built ____ south.

       A. to face  B. facing    C. to have faced     D. being facing

60. The old farmer____ the badly injured and burnt soldiercame out of the burning farmhousecalling continuously for help.

       A. supporting         B. supported by      C. being supported by    D. being supporting

61. The young and old seem to live in two very different worlds____ by different skills and abilities.

       A. separatedB. to be separate     C. separating          D. being separated

62. The old hostess stood ____for a moment when she saw a beggar appear before her suddenly.

       A. surprising          B. surprisedC. to surprise         D. being surprised

63. Our modern civilization must not be thought of as ____ in a short period of time.

       A. to be created     B. having created    C. being created    D. to have been created

64. He went to bed____and when he woke up he found he still had his shoes on.

       A. drinking B. being drunk   C. drunk     D. having drunk

65. Chinathe world’s most populous(人口众多) nationjoined the WTO last weekend____ 15 years of talks.

       A. to end    B. ended     C. ending    D. ends

66. ____ rapidly by the bodysugar provides a quick energy source.

       A. Digested B. DigestingC. To digestD. Having digested

67. No matter how frequently ____the works of Beethoven always attract large audience.

       A. performing        B. performed         C. to be performed D. being performed

68. I lost my way in complete darkness and____ matters worseit began to rain.

       A. made     B. having made      C. making          D. to make

69. She went to the game late. ____she left her ticket at home.

       A. What’s more     B. That is   C. On the contrary        D. To make things worse

70. When we reached the villagewe saw new houses ____ up.

       A. having been put  B. putting          C. being putD. had put

71. I saw a woman ____ in the corner on her own so I went over to have a chat.

       A. stand     B. to stand C. who stands   D. standing

72. The fat boy was made____ more exercise to lose weight.

       A. taking    B. take       C. to take          D. to taking

73. Why weren’t you engaged in trade?

 Mother desired me ____ into businessbut I chose to study law.

       A. going     B. to go      C. having gone   D. to have gone

74. Some children were seen____ here in the garden all morning. It must have been ____ who picked flowers.

       A. playing; they     B. to play; they      C. playing; them    D. played; them

75. He expected there____ more room for him to put in a desk.

       A. will be    B. isC. to be      D. being

76. Wang Hua is said ____ a new computer programme recentlybut I don’t know when she will finish it.

       A. to designB. to be designing   C. to have been designing D. to have designed

77. After the firethere was no desk for a child ____ in the school.

       A. for writing         B. for writing on    C. to write         D. to write at

78. O’Neal works hard. He is often seen ____ heavily before his teammates have even arrived at practice.

       A. sweated B. to be sweated     C. sweatingD. being sweated

79. He wants to ____ his shirt ____doesn’t he?

       A. have; been washed   B. have; washing

       C. have; to be washed   D. have; washed

80. The old man had a letter from his daughter ____ to him.

       A. read       B. written          C. writing          D. received

81. Why are you looking pleased?

  OhI’ve just had a job____ for next year.

       A. offered  B. offering C. to offer D. being offered

82. Janewhat a beautiful dress you are wearing !

       Do you like it? I ____ it especially ____ for the party tonight.

       A. have; make       B. had; making      C. have; to make   D. had; made

83. Don’t you think it nice to have the bedroom ____ nice and clean?

       A. looked   B. looking          C. to look          D. look

84. Do you have an extra ticket for the concert?

 —Yes.

       —Wellwho would you rather ____ with youGeorge or me?

       A. have to go    B. have gone          C. to have gone      D. have go

85. Who do you think he would have ____ a letter of thanks to the little hero?

       A. written          B. to write         C. writing          D. write

86. Is this the camera you want to ____?

       A. have it repaired  B. repair it  C. have repaired     D. be repaired

87. Mrs Green was disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____ went wrong again.

       A. repaired  B. to repaired         C. repairing D. it to be repaired

88. With his son ____the old man felt unhappy.

       A. to be disappointed B. disappointing   C. being disappointed D. to disappoint

89. Tom is coming. With him____ meI’m sure I will finish the work on time.

       A. helping  B. to help   C. helps     D. help

90. Such ____ the caseI couldn’t help but ____ him.

       A. being; support    B. is; to support     C. has been; supporting D. be; supported

91. All things____her paper is of great value.

       A. to consider   B. considered    C. considering       D. having considering

92. The girl in the snapshot was smiling sweetly____.

       A. her long hair flowed in the breeze B. her long hair was flowing in the breeze  

       C. her long hairs were flowing in the breeze D. her long hair flowing in the breeze

93. I carefully poured the liquid into the watermy classmates ____ anxiously beside me to see what would happen.

       A. stood     B. standing C. to stand  D. were standing

94. Premier Wen Jiabao urged all members of the State Council to devote themselves ____ an overall xiaokang society.

       A. build      B. to build   C. building  D. to building

95. —How do Americans like to be called?

       —Most of them don’t object____ them by their first names.

       A. that I callB. for calling         C. to my calling     D. to call

96. Rockets are used____ up man-made satellites into space.

       A. to sending         B. to be sent          C. to send          D. to be sending

97. My uncle has always insisted on his ____ Dr. Wang instead of Mr. Wang.

       A. calling    B. called     C. having called      D. being called

98. Did you have a good time at the party?

       Thanks. I appreciated ____ to your home.

       A. to be invited   B. to have invited    C. being invited      D. having invited

99. —Were you busy last weekend?

—Very. Rather than____ time playing cards as usualI devote every effort to____ an advertisement.

       A. wasting; making B. waste; make     C. to waste; make  D. a waste of; making

100. What did the boy say at last?

He admitted ____ in the exam. And he felt really ashamed.

A. to having cheated B. to have cheated       C. to being cheated D. to have been cheated

101. She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy cooking the meal.

       A. to clean  B. cleaning  C. being cleaning    D. to be cleaning

102. Sometimes students may have ____ themselves.

Let’s see what we can do to help them.

A. difficulty expressing       B. difficulty to express

C. difficulties in expressing      D. difficulties express

103. You can hardly imagine the difficulty she had ____ enough evidence to prove the case.

       A. collectedB. to collectC. collecting          D. to have collected

104. Unfortunatelyit is too late____ any taxi. So we have to walk home.

       A. to be     B. for there to be   C. to have been     D. being

105. Henry Ford’s introduction of the assembly line vastly reduced the time it took____.

       A. to make a car     B. for making a car C. making a car      D. a car to make

106. The actress never dreamed of____ for her to win an Oscar this year.

       A. being a chance        B. there is a chance      

       C. there to be a chance D. there be a chance

107. I wish there____ no misunderstanding on this matter.

       A. is          B. to be      C. be         D. are

108. He kept putting his dream to the test ——even though it meant____ with uncertainty and fear of failure.

       A. living     B. to live     C. to be living        D. having been lived

109. How did you get in touch with Mr Ben?

Wellit seems to me that you’ve forgotten ____ me his address.

A. to tell     B. to have told        C. telling     D. being told

110. When I caught him cheating(欺骗) me I stopped ____ things in his shop.

       A. buying          B. buy        C. to buy    D. bought

111. The Turners consider ____ a computerwhich is commonly considered ____ a great help in our work and study.

       A. to buy; to be  B. buying; to be      C. to buy; being     D. buying; being

112. When I got back home I saw a message ____ to the door____ “sorry to miss youwill call later. ”

       A. sticking; reads   B. stuck; read        C. pinned; reading  D. pinning; reading

113. The eighteen-storeyed buildingwhen ____will shut out the sun ____ up the rooms in my house.

       A. completed; lighted    B. completing; lighting

       C. completing; lighted   D. completed; lighting

 

 

 

高考试题归类:

不定式作宾语:AACBA CDBAC

不定式作宾(主)语补足语:BAAAA AABAC AD

不定式作定语:B

不定式作表语:BB

不定式作状语:BBCAD

现在分词作主/宾语补足语:ADABA

现在分词作定语:DBDB

现在分词作原因状语:CA

现在分词作伴随状语:BACA

现在分词作结果状语:A

过去分词作补足语:DDC

过去分词作定语:BAADA

过去分词作表语:CC

过去分词作状语:BACDD

动名词作动词宾语:CCCAA CCDD

动名词作介词宾语:CBB

动名词固定搭配:DC

混合使用:B

 

能力过关检测:    BCCBA  BDCDD  CADCB  BABCB  BDCAC  CDBBD

BBABD  BBABC  BDCDD  DDACC  CCCCC  ABBBA

ABCCC  ABDDC  DCDAC  CDCDA  ADDDD  CABBA

BDBDC  CDCAA  AACBA  CBACA  BCD

 

 

 

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案