GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

第十七章 直接引语和间接引语

基础知识解析

一、直接引语和间接引语的意义:我们转述别人的话时,可以引用别人的原话,被引用的部分称为直接引语;用自己的话转述别人的意思,被转述的部分称为间接引语。间接引语多数构成宾语从句。

二、直接引语改为间接引语时连词的使用:

1、直接引语为陈述句时,间接引语的连词用thatthat可以省略。如:

“I have lived in the south for years,” Mrs Duncan said.

Mrs Duncan told me (that) she had lived in the south for years. Duncan夫人说她在南方住了许多年。

“I shall tell him exactly what I think,” she said.

She said (that) she would tell him exactly what she thought. 她说她将会告诉他她所想的。

2、直接引语为一般疑问句时,间接引语的连词用if / whether。如:

He said“Are you interested in English?”

He asked (me) if I was interested in English. 他问我是否对英语感兴趣。

He said“Did you see him last night?”He asked (me) whether I had seen him the night before. 他问我头天晚上是否见到了他。

3、直接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语的连词用特殊疑问句本身所带的疑问词如whenwherewhowhyhowhow manyhow old等等。如:

“What do you want?” he asked me.

He asked me what I wanted. 他问我想要什么。

“How can we improve the condition of the soil?” the farmers asked him.

The farmers asked him how they could improve the condition of the soil. 农民们询问他如何才能提高土壤的质量。

4、直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语不用连词,而是将直接引语改为动词不定式用作句子的宾语补足语。如:

She said to us“Please sit down. ”

She asked us to sit down.

He said“Don’t make so much noiseboys. ”

He told the boys not to make so much noise.

“Please explain why you’re two and a half hours late,” the boss said.

The boss asked him to explain why he was two and a half hours late.

“Don’t give up!” Father shouted at him.

Father told him in a loud voice not to give up.

“Get everything ready in half an hour,” the teacher said to the students.

The teacher ordered the students to get everything ready in half an hour.

〖注〗主句的谓语动词有时要根据直接引语的情态和语气作相应的变化,如say说; tell sb. 告诉某人;ask/请求;suggest建议;order命令等等。

四、时态的变化:如主句的谓语动词为现在时态范畴,间接引语中的时态一般不作变化;但如果主句的谓语动词为过去时态范畴,则间接引语多改用相应的过去时态。其规律见下表:

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般将来时

一般过去将来时

现在完成进行时

过去完成进行时

一般过去时

过去完成时

如:She’s preparing her lessons,” I said.

I said that she was preparing her lessons.

I said to them“He’ll get excited. ”

I told them that he would get excited.

He said to me“Jane spent all her time doing that. ”

He told me that Jane had spent all her time doing that.

例外:

1、直接引语如果有表示具体过去时间的时间状语(如in 1992,last week)等,在变为间接引语时可以不变。如:

My father said to me“I read the book in 1986. ”

My father told me he read the book in 1986.

2、直接引语表达的意思是客观真理时,时态可以不变。如:

The geography teacher said to us“The earth turns around the sun. ”

The geography teacher told us that the earth turns around the sun.

五、间接引语中人称代词的变化:要根据句子的意义作相应的变动。其规律是:一主二宾三不变,即第一人称代词指的是句子的主语;第二人称代词指的是句子的宾语;第三人称代词不用变化。如:

I haven’t brought my dictionary. ” the student said.

The student said that he hadn’t brought his dictionary.

六、指示代词、时间、地点状语的变化:通常总是由近指改为远指。其规律见下表:

直接引语

间接引语

now(现在)

then(那时)

ago(以前)

before(以前)

today(今天)

that day(那天)

this morning(今天早晨)

that morning(那天早晨)

yesterday(昨天)

the day before(前一天)

yesterday morning(昨天早晨)

the morning before(前一天早晨)

tomorrow(明天)

the next/following day;

the day after(第二天)

last week/month(上星期/上个月)

the week/month before(前一个星期/月)

next week/month(下星期/上个月)

the week/month after(第二个星期/月)

the following week/month

this week/month(本星期/本月)

that week/month(那个星期/月)

here(这儿)

there(那儿)

如:

“I’ll come and see you again this eveningTom. ” he said.

He told Tom that he would go and see him again that evening.

例外:如果现场转述别人的话或当句子的意义不会引起误解的情况下,则勿须改变以上内容。如:

“I’ll come here again today,” she said.

She said that she’d come here again today.

七、语序的使用:间接引语中总是使用陈述语序。如:

She asked“What is it? What’s going to happen now?”

She asked what it was and what was going to happen then.

The boy was wondering“How does the computer work?”

The boy was wondering how the computer worked.

He asked me“Do you study English or French?”

He asked me whether I studied English or French.

“It’s Maryisn’t it?” asked Jane.

Jane asked whether it was Mary or not.

 

能力过关检测

1. The teacher said“Don’t be lateMary. ”

The teacher told ____.

       A. Mary not to be late B. Mary to be not late       C. Mary are not late   D. not to be late

2. He asked her“Where are you going?”

He asked her ____.

       A. where she were going     B. where she was going to

C. where she was going  D. where she is going

3. The lady said“I shall go there on time. ”

The lady said that ____.

       A. she would come there on time     B. she would come here on time

       C. she would got here on time     D. he would got here on time

4. He said to me“I wrote to my father yesterday. ”

He told me he had written to his father ____.

       A. the yesterday     B. before today         C. the day beforeD. the next day

5. The teacher asked“Are you waiting for the bus?”

The teacher asked ____ for the bus.

       A. if I was waiting  B. was I waiting C. you are waiting         D. I was waiting

6. The professor said that light ____ faster than sound.

       A. travels    B. traveled         C. travel D. travelled

7. My mother asked me to show my homework to her.

My mother said to me“Show ____ homework. ”

       A. her my          B. me your        C. her your        D. me his

 

Key:

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前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案