一、独立主格结构概述：独立主格结构是课文中经常遇到的句子结构，由名词（或代词） + 现在分词（或过去分词、不定式、形容词、副词、介词短语）构成。在语法上是一个独立的短语，不是句子，在意思上依附于整个句子。在句子中作状语，表示时间、原因、条件、让步、行为方式或伴随情况。可置于句首，也可放在句尾。主要用于书面语。
1) Weather permitting，we are going to visit you tomorrow. 天气许可的话，我们明天去看你。（名词+现在分词）
2) Our house painted white，we like it better. 我们的房屋被漆成白色，我们更喜欢了。（名词+过去分词）
3) He lay on his back，his hands crossed under his head. 他脸朝天，头枕着双手躺着。（名词 + 过去分词）
4) They should first reach an agreement on the principle，the details to be discussed later. 他们应先在原则上达成协议，然后再商讨细节问题。（名词+不定式）
5) The largest collection ever found in England was one of about 200,000 silver pennies，all of them over 600 years old. 在英格兰发现的最大一堆硬币是20万枚银制的便士，它们全都是600多年前制作的。（名词+副词）
6) He came into the room，his nose red with cold. 他走进房间，鼻子冻得通红。（名词 + 形容词）
7) In the darkness we moved on，one after another. 黑暗中，我们一个跟着一个向前运动。（名词+介词短语）
8) In front of the house was a tall tree，its top well above tops of the other trees. 房前有一棵很高的树，它的树梢比其它树的树梢高出许多。（名词+介词短语）
9) After killing the Japanese guard，the two men ran away，rifle in hand. 杀死了那个日本卫兵之后，两个人提着枪跑了。（名词+介词短语）
10) He lay on his back，his teeth set，his right hand clenched on his breast，and his glaring eyes looking straight upward. 他仰卧着，牙关紧咬，双手紧握捂住胸前，怒视的双眼直盯着上方。（名词+过去分词/现在分词）
11) The job done，we went home. 工作完成后，我们才回家。（时间）
12) The meeting over，everyone tried to go back earlier. 会议结束后，每个人都想早点回去。（时间）
13) So many comrades being absent，the meeting had to be put off. 这么多的同志缺席，会议只得延期。（原因）
14) The storm having destroyed their hut，they had to live in a cave. 暴雨把房子冲坏，他们只好住在一个窑洞里。（原因）
15) Weather permitting，we'll start tomorrow. 天气许可的话，我们明天就动身。（条件）
16) You being careful enough，such and such mistakes will be made. 尽管你十分小心，总会犯这样或那样的错误。（让步）
17) Mary entered the room，big apple in hand. 玛丽手里拿着一个大苹果走进了房间。（伴随）
18) He was doing his homework，his father sitting aside. 他正在做家庭作业，父亲坐在旁边（陪着）。（补充说明）
1、名词（或代词）与后面的分词（或不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词）之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。如例8）中的top 与 above tops; 例3）中的 hands 与 crossed; 例9）中的rifle 与in hand等，可以看成是一个并列句或从句的省略形式。
The job done，we went home. =After the job was done，we went home. （时间）
So many comrades being absent，the meeting had to be put off. =Because so many comrades were absent，the meeting had to be put off. （原因）
Weather permitting，we’ll start tomorrow. =If weather permits，we’ll start tomorrow. （条件）
You being careful enough，such and such mistakes will be made. =However careful enough you are，such and such mistakes will be made. （让步）
Mary entered the room，with a big apple in her hand. =Mary entered the room and had a big apple in her hand. （伴随）
He was doing his homework，his father sitting aside. =He was doing his homework，while his father was sitting aside. （补充说明）
His teeth set; his right hand clenched; his eyes looking; his eyes opened; his hand raised. . .
2、有时现在分词和过去分词均可以用，我们可以说his eyes opened. . . 也可说his eyes opening; 但意思不同。过去分词表示被动，说明是受外界影响而“睁圆双眼”。而现在分词表示主动，说明是用自身的力量而“睁圆双眼”，其感情色彩就不如用过去分词而来得强烈。
六、独立主格结构与with复合结构的区别：表示伴随状态的独立主格结构大多可改变为with / without 的复合结构。当然表示伴随状语的 with 复合结构反过来也可改为独立主格结构。例如：
He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. . . 他仍然举着手站了一会儿…→He stood for an instant，his hand still raised.
He could be seen with his legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches. 只见他双腿盘着树干，长满金黄头发的头伸出树枝以上。→He could be seen，his legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches.
Without any money left，he had no choice but to borrow some from his friend. 由于手头拮据，他只得向他的朋友借一些钱。→No money left，he had no choice but to borrow some from his friend.
With him sitting next to her，she felt safe. 有他坐在身旁，她感到很安全。→He sitting next to her，she felt safe.
He sat in the front row，his mouth half open，his eyes looking straight up，his head thrust forward so as not to miss a single word. 他坐在前排，口半张，眼直视，头前倾，生怕漏掉一个字。
A bamboo hat on his head，straw sandals on his feet，carrying pole on his shoulder，folk song in mouth，the young peasant climbed up to the mountain step by step. 那个年轻的农夫头戴斗笠，脚穿草鞋，肩扛扁担，口哼山歌，一步一步登上山来。
七、使用介词的问题：独立主格结构中，由名词 + 介词短语构成，若介词是in时，一般说来，其前后的两个名词均不加任何附加成分，如物主代词或冠词，也不用复数。如：
The old man stood under a large tree，pipe in mouth. 那个老人站在大树下，口里含着烟斗。
Two militiamen quickly passed by us，rifle in hand. 两个民兵手里拿着步枪，迅速地从我们旁边走过去。
A robber burst into the room，knife in hand. 一个强盗手持钢刀冲进了房间。
He came out of the library，a large book under his arm. 他从图书馆出来，腋下夹着一大本书。
1. ____ you think will make a trip to Paris?
A. Who can it be that B. Whom do C. Whom can it be D. Who will it be
2. —Where was it____ the road accident happened yesterday?
—In front of the market.
A. when B. that C. whichD. how
3. It is not until you have lost your health____ you know its value.
A. that B. when C. what D. which
4. ____ he realized it was too late to return home.
A. Not until dark B. It was until dark that
C. It was not until dark that D. It was dark that
5. —Was it two months ago ____ you luckily got an opportunity to spend your holiday in Canada?
—____. John was the lucky dog.
A. when; Not I B. when; Not really C. that; Not at allD. that; Not me
6. It was ____ I met Mr Smith in London.
A. many years that B. for many years since
C. since many years ago when D. many years ago that
7. It is the protection for the trees ____really matters，rather than how may trees are planted.
A. what B. that C. 不填 D. which
8. It is only when you nearly lose someone ____ you fully realize how much you value him.
A. do B. then C. will D. that
9. It was not until dark ____ he found ____ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.
A. that; what B. that; that C. when; what D. when; that
10. The truth is that it is only by studying history ____ learn what to expect in the future.
A. can we B. that we can C. and then we can D. so that we can
11. Was it through Mary，____ was working at a high school，____ you got to know Bob.
A. who; who B. who; thatC. that; that D. that; where
12. It was at the very beginning ____ Mr Smith made a decision ____ we should send for a doctor.
A. when; which B. that; which C. when; that D. that; that
13. It was in the lab ____ was taken charge of by Professor Zhang ____ they did the experiment.
A. where; that B. which; where C. that; where D. which; that
14. It was in Beihai Park____ they made a date for the first time____ the old couple told us their love story.
A. where; that B. that; thatC. where; when D. that; when
15. It is in Qingdao____ you’re going to pay a visit to____ this kind of washing machine is produced.
A. 不填；that B. where; which C. 不填；whereD. that; which
16. It was not until dark____ he found____ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.
A. that; what B. that; thatC. when; what D. when; that
17. ____ entered the office when he realized that he had forgotten his report.
A. He hardly hadB. Had he hardly C. Hardly had heD. Hardly he had
18. ____ land is improved by sowing it with various seeds，____ is the mind by exercising it with different studies.
A. As; asB. As; so C. If; so D. When; so
19. ____ me the truth，or I’m not going to leave the room.
A. Tell B. Telling C. To tellD. If you tell
20. Every language____ more than 100，000words，but____ are not used very frequently.
A. includes，many B. contains，many of these words
C. has，many of which D. owns，many of them
21. —I am sorry I failed in persuading him.
—____，and you will succeed.
A. Making one more effort B. Make one more effort
C. To make one more effort D. One more effort made
22. He moved away from his parents and missed them ____ enjoy the exciting life in New York.
A. much so as toB. very much to C. too much to D. enough to
23. Sandy could do nothing but ____ to his mother that he was wrong.
A. admitting B. admits C. admit D. to admit
24. ____ Mary ____ Sue knows nothing about the matter，____ they didn’t come to the school last Friday.
A. Either; or; because B. Both; and; as C. Neither; nor; since D. Not only; but; for
25. Not only____ it，but also____ it for ourselves.
A. did we hear; we saw B. we heard; did we see
C. we heard; we sawD. did we hear; did we see
26. —By the way，when shall I come and get the reference books?
—Would ____ come and get them at five tomorrow afternoon?
A. you ratherB. it better for you to get
C. it be all right for you to D. you be all right to
27. Unfortunately，it is too late____ any taxi. So we have to walk home.
A. to be B. for there to be C. to have been D. being
28. The old man had a letter from his daughter ____ to him.
A. read B. written C. writing D. received
29. ____ he returns to his hometown.
A. It is long before that B. It is before long after
C. It will be before long that D. It won’t be long before
30. It will be a long time____ Mr Black ____ back from abroad.
A. before; comesB. since; has come C. before; will come D. after; will come
31. Scientists say it may be five or ten years ____ it is possible to test this machine on human patients.
A. since B. when C. after D. before
32. As a public relations officer，he is said ____ some very influential people.
A. to know B. to be knowing C. to have been knowing D. to have known
33. —Li Ming is said ____ abroad. Do you know what country he studied in?
—Yes. In London.
A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studyingD. to have been studying
34. The baby was on the point of crying ____ her mother finally came home.
A. when B. unless C. while D. until
35. I____ to have supper____ he returned.
A. was about; while B. am about; when C. was just about; when D. was going; while
36. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave____ something occurred which attracted my attention.
A. unlessB. until C. when D. while
37. We hadn’t been out for long，____ she felt sick.
A. as B. when C. while D. after
38. —What was the party like?
—Wonderful. It’s years____ I enjoyed myself so much.
A. beforeB. when C. since D. after
39. — It’s a long time____ I saw you last.
—Yes，and it will be a long time____ we meet again.
A. that; until B. since; before C. when; thatD. before; since
40. Don’t forget it’ll be the first time ____ in public.
A. I’ve spoken B. I shall speak C. I will speak D. I speak
41. Everyone____，the chairman____ and the meeting began.
A. arrived; took his place B. having arrived; take place
C. came; took his place D. having arrived; took his place
42. It seems____ the dress is a bit too large for me. Can I change it____?
A. even if，into a smaller one B. as if，for a smaller one
C. as though，to a bit smaller D. even though，for the smaller one
43. ____ the students were hearing the exciting news!
A. How pleased B. What a fun C. How happily D. What pleasure
44. —How would you like your coffee?
A. It’s well done B. Very nice. Thank you
C. One cup. That’s enough D. The stronger，the better
45. Excuse me. If your call is not too urgent(紧急的)，do you mind ____ mine first?
A. I make B. if I makeC. me to make D. that I make
46. If we keep on polluting the environment，the white plastic rubbish will be the last thing to tell other creature that “____once an earth. ”
A. there was B. there is C. it is D. it was
47. While watching TV，____.
A. the telephone rangB. I heard the telephone ringing
C. the telephone was ringing D. the telephone was heard ring
48. —What’s the matter with you?
—____ the heavy suitcase，my waist was hurt unexpectedly.
A. Carrying B. Carried C. While carrying D. While I was carrying
49. As a boy of six，____.
A. Tim’s parents asked him to play the piano every day
B. Tim and his parents would play the piano together
C. Tim had to practise playing the piano every day
D. To learn playing the piano is too hard for Tim
50. Just after putting away the dishes，____.
A. the door bell was rung B. Mother heard the doorbell ring
C. Someone knocked at the door D. the doorbell rang loud
51. Hands ____ behind his head，John lay on the sand with his eyes looking straight upward into space.
A. crossing B. were crossed C. crossed D. had crossed
52. To speak English freely，____.
A. a lot of speaking should be done. B. more speaking is necessary
C. you should do more speaking D. English should be spoken very often
53. All the preparations for the task____，and we’re ready to start.
A. completed B. to complete C. had been completed D. have been completed
54. Isn’t ____ rude ____ him to talk to his mother like that?
A. that; for B. that; of C. it; for D. it; of
55. It was because of bad weather ____ the football match had to be put off.
A. so B. so that C. why D. that
56. Word came ____ the British Queen Mother celebrated her 101st birthday in good health，____ isn’t surprising，because she lives an easy life and gets the best medical care.
A. that; which B. which; which C. that; that D. when; as
57. She wondered ____ she could have the opportunity to spend ____ here ____ she could learn more about the city.
A. if; some time; so that B. how; sometime; so that
C. when; some times; that D. if; some time; such that
58. When they went into the shop and asked to look at the wedding rings，the girl brought out the cheaper ones，____ she had arranged with James.
A. those were what B. what was that C. which was what D. that was what
59. Is this hotel____ offered you a job____ you stayed the first time you arrived here?
A. which; whereB. the one; in which C. where; that D. the one that; where
60. Peter won’t drive us to the station. He has ____ to take us all.
A. a very small car B. too small a car C. a too small car D. such a small car
61. —Tom wants to stay up and watch an old movie on TV.
—Ten o’clock is ____ for a boy of his age to stay up.
A. too late an hour B. too later an hour C. an hour too late D. an hour too later
62. —Now that you like the house so much，why not buy it?
—Well. I can’t afford ____ house.
A. that big a B. a that bigC. that a big D. a big that
63. These shoes cost ____. What’s more，they are ____ small for me.
A. much too; too much B. too much; much too
C. very much; very D. very much; too much
64. I’m afraid I’ll turn to Prof. Tomlinson. It is____.
A. too difficult a problem B. a too difficult problem
C. so difficult problem D. a so difficult problem
65. I haven’t seen____ this since I began to collect stamps.
A. as old a stamp as B. as an old stamp as C. an old stamp as D. a such old stamp as
66. Believe it or not，he came ____.
A. home drunk last night B. home last night drunk
C. last night home drunk D. drunk home last night
67. —Will you be sent abroad for further studies?
—I have ____!
A. no such luck B. such no luck C. no such a luck D. not such a luck
能力过头检测： ABACD DBDAB BDDAA ACBAB BCCDA CBADA
DAAAC CBCBA DBADB ABDCB CCDDD AACAB