GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

第十九章 独立主格结构

基础知识解析

一、独立主格结构概述:独立主格结构是课文中经常遇到的句子结构,由名词(或代词) + 现在分词(或过去分词、不定式、形容词、副词、介词短语)构成。在语法上是一个独立的短语,不是句子,在意思上依附于整个句子。在句子中作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、让步、行为方式或伴随情况。可置于句首,也可放在句尾。主要用于书面语。

二、独立主格结构的构成:由名词(或代词)+现在分词(或过去分词、不定式、形容词、副词、介词短语)构成。例如:

1) Weather permittingwe are going to visit you tomorrow. 天气许可的话,我们明天去看你。(名词+现在分词)

2) Our house painted whitewe like it better. 我们的房屋被漆成白色,我们更喜欢了。(名词+过去分词)

3) He lay on his backhis hands crossed under his head. 他脸朝天,头枕着双手躺着。(名词 + 过去分词)

4) They should first reach an agreement on the principlethe details to be discussed later. 他们应先在原则上达成协议,然后再商讨细节问题。(名词+不定式)

5) The largest collection ever found in England was one of about 200,000 silver penniesall of them over 600 years old. 在英格兰发现的最大一堆硬币是20万枚银制的便士,它们全都是600多年前制作的。(名词+副词)

6) He came into the roomhis nose red with cold. 他走进房间,鼻子冻得通红。(名词 + 形容词)

7) In the darkness we moved onone after another. 黑暗中,我们一个跟着一个向前运动。(名词+介词短语)

8) In front of the house was a tall treeits top well above tops of the other trees. 房前有一棵很高的树,它的树梢比其它树的树梢高出许多。(名词+介词短语)

9) After killing the Japanese guardthe two men ran awayrifle in hand. 杀死了那个日本卫兵之后,两个人提着枪跑了。(名词+介词短语)

10) He lay on his backhis teeth sethis right hand clenched on his breastand his glaring eyes looking straight upward. 他仰卧着,牙关紧咬,双手紧握捂住胸前,怒视的双眼直盯着上方。(名词+过去分词/现在分词)

三、独立主格结构的作用:在句子中多作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、让步、伴随行为或补充说明等。如:

11) The job donewe went home. 工作完成后,我们才回家。(时间)

12) The meeting overeveryone tried to go back earlier. 会议结束后,每个人都想早点回去。(时间)

13) So many comrades being absentthe meeting had to be put off. 这么多的同志缺席,会议只得延期。(原因)

14) The storm having destroyed their hutthey had to live in a cave. 暴雨把房子冲坏,他们只好住在一个窑洞里。(原因)

15) Weather permittingwe'll start tomorrow. 天气许可的话,我们明天就动身。(条件)

16) You being careful enoughsuch and such mistakes will be made. 尽管你十分小心,总会犯这样或那样的错误。(让步)

17) Mary entered the roombig apple in hand. 玛丽手里拿着一个大苹果走进了房间。(伴随)

18) He was doing his homeworkhis father sitting aside. 他正在做家庭作业,父亲坐在旁边(陪着)。(补充说明)

四、独立主格结构的特点:

1、名词(或代词)与后面的分词(或不定式、形容词、介词短语、副词)之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。如例8)中的top above tops; 3)中的 hands crossed; 9)中的rifle in hand等,可以看成是一个并列句或从句的省略形式。

2、独立主格结构的逻辑主语与主句的主语不一致而独立存在,如上面所有例句划线部分的名词或代词的主格与主句中的主语同时并存。

3、独立主格结构一般用逗号和主句隔开。

4、同分词短语作状语一样,独立主格结构作状语也可以改为相应的状语从句(伴随状语有时可改为并列谓语)。如:

The job donewe went home. =After the job was donewe went home. (时间)

So many comrades being absentthe meeting had to be put off. =Because so many comrades were absentthe meeting had to be put off. (原因)

Weather permittingwe’ll start tomorrow. =If weather permitswe’ll start tomorrow. (条件)

You being careful enoughsuch and such mistakes will be made. =However careful enough you aresuch and such mistakes will be made. (让步)

Mary entered the roomwith a big apple in her hand. =Mary entered the room and had a big apple in her hand. (伴随)

He was doing his homeworkhis father sitting aside. =He was doing his homeworkwhile his father was sitting aside. (补充说明)

五、独立主格结构中使用现在分词与过去分词的区别:

1、表示人体部位的词,如handfootfaceeyes等作逻辑主语时,及物动词用过去分词,不及物动词用现在分词。如:

His teeth set; his right hand clenched; his eyes looking; his eyes opened; his hand raised. . .

2、有时现在分词和过去分词均可以用,我们可以说his eyes opened. . . 也可说his eyes opening; 但意思不同。过去分词表示被动,说明是受外界影响而“睁圆双眼”。而现在分词表示主动,说明是用自身的力量而“睁圆双眼”,其感情色彩就不如用过去分词而来得强烈。

六、独立主格结构与with复合结构的区别:表示伴随状态的独立主格结构大多可改变为with / without 的复合结构。当然表示伴随状语的 with 复合结构反过来也可改为独立主格结构。例如:

He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. . . 他仍然举着手站了一会儿…→He stood for an instanthis hand still raised.

He could be seen with his legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches. 只见他双腿盘着树干,长满金黄头发的头伸出树枝以上。→He could be seenhis legs wrapped around the trunk and his blond head sticking out above the branches.

Without any money lefthe had no choice but to borrow some from his friend. 由于手头拮据,他只得向他的朋友借一些钱。→No money lefthe had no choice but to borrow some from his friend.

With him sitting next to hershe felt safe. 有他坐在身旁,她感到很安全。→He sitting next to hershe felt safe.

以上两种结构所表达的意思基本相同。所不同的是with复合结构常用于日常生活中,更口语化。而独立主格结构则多用于描绘文字,即多用于文学中,使之所描绘的内容更加生动有色。如:

He sat in the front rowhis mouth half openhis eyes looking straight uphis head thrust forward so as not to miss a single word. 他坐在前排,口半张,眼直视,头前倾,生怕漏掉一个字。

A bamboo hat on his headstraw sandals on his feetcarrying pole on his shoulderfolk song in mouththe young peasant climbed up to the mountain step by step. 那个年轻的农夫头戴斗笠,脚穿草鞋,肩扛扁担,口哼山歌,一步一步登上山来。

七、使用介词的问题:独立主格结构中,由名词 + 介词短语构成,若介词是in时,一般说来,其前后的两个名词均不加任何附加成分,如物主代词或冠词,也不用复数。如:

The old man stood under a large treepipe in mouth. 那个老人站在大树下,口里含着烟斗。

Two militiamen quickly passed by usrifle in hand. 两个民兵手里拿着步枪,迅速地从我们旁边走过去。

A robber burst into the roomknife in hand. 一个强盗手持钢刀冲进了房间。

〖注〗如果是其它介词则没有这种限定。如:

He came out of the librarya large book under his arm. 他从图书馆出来,腋下夹着一大本书。

 

能力过关检测

句型结构

1. ____ you think will make a trip to Paris?

       A. Who can it be that     B. Whom do          C. Whom can it be        D. Who will it be

2. Where was it____ the road accident happened yesterday?

       In front of the market.

       A. when B. that        C. whichD. how

3. It is not until you have lost your health____ you know its value.

       A. that   B. when     C. what D. which

4. ____ he realized it was too late to return home.

      A. Not until dark      B. It was until dark that

       C. It was not until dark that  D. It was dark that

5. Was it two months ago ____ you luckily got an opportunity to spend your holiday in Canada?

____. John was the lucky dog.

A. when; Not I          B. when; Not really C. that; Not at allD. that; Not me

6. It was ____ I met Mr Smith in London.

       A. many years that   B. for many years since

       C. since many years ago when     D. many years ago that

7. It is the protection for the trees ____really mattersrather than how may trees are planted.

       A. what  B. that        C. 不填 D. which

8. It is only when you nearly lose someone ____ you fully realize how much you value him.

       A. do B. then       C. will    D. that

9. It was not until dark ____ he found ____ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.

       A. that; what      B. that; that C. when; what          D. when; that

10. The truth is that it is only by studying history ____ learn what to expect in the future.

       A. can we      B. that we can        C. and then we can        D. so that we can

11. Was it through Mary____ was working at a high school____ you got to know Bob.

       A. who; who     B. who; thatC. that; that       D. that; where

12. It was at the very beginning ____ Mr Smith made a decision ____ we should send for a doctor.

       A. when; which B. that; which        C. when; that     D. that; that

13. It was in the lab ____ was taken charge of by Professor Zhang ____ they did the experiment.

       A. where; that    B. which; where     C. that; where    D. which; that

14. It was in Beihai Park____ they made a date for the first time____ the old couple told us their love story.

       A. where; that          B. that; thatC. where; when D. that; when

15. It is in Qingdao____ you’re going to pay a visit to____ this kind of washing machine is produced.

       A. 不填;that          B. where; which     C. 不填;whereD. that; which

16. It was not until dark____ he found____ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.

       A. that; what     B. that; thatC. when; what  D. when; that

17. ____ entered the office when he realized that he had forgotten his report.

       A. He hardly hadB. Had he hardly     C. Hardly had heD. Hardly he had

18. ____ land is improved by sowing it with various seeds____ is the mind by exercising it with different studies.

       A. As; asB. As; so    C. If; so D. When; so

19. ____ me the truthor I’m not going to leave the room.

       A. Tell    B. Telling    C. To tellD. If you tell

20. Every language____ more than 100000wordsbut____ are not used very frequently.

       A. includesmany   B. containsmany of these words

       C. hasmany of which       D. ownsmany of them

21. I am sorry I failed in persuading him.

____and you will succeed.

A. Making one more effort   B. Make one more effort

C. To make one more effort D. One more effort made

22. He moved away from his parents and missed them ____ enjoy the exciting life in New York.

       A. much so as toB. very much to     C. too much to          D. enough to

23. Sandy could do nothing but ____ to his mother that he was wrong.

       A. admitting       B. admits    C. admit D. to admit

24. ____ Mary ____ Sue knows nothing about the matter____ they didn’t come to the school last Friday.

       A. Either; or; because    B. Both; and; as      C. Neither; nor; since     D. Not only; but; for

25. Not only____ itbut also____ it for ourselves.

       A. did we hear; we saw       B. we heard; did we see

       C. we heard; we sawD. did we hear; did we see

26. By the waywhen shall I come and get the reference books?

Would ____ come and get them at five tomorrow afternoon?

A. you ratherB. it better for you to get  

C. it be all right for you to    D. you be all right to

27. Unfortunatelyit is too late____ any taxi. So we have to walk home.

       A. to be B. for there to be   C. to have been D. being

28. The old man had a letter from his daughter ____ to him.

       A. read   B. written          C. writing      D. received

29. ____ he returns to his hometown.

       A. It is long before that        B. It is before long after

       C. It will be before long that D. It won’t be long before

30. It will be a long time____ Mr Black ____ back from abroad.

       A. before; comesB. since; has come C. before; will come     D. after; will come

31. Scientists say it may be five or ten years ____ it is possible to test this machine on human patients.

       A. since  B. when     C. after  D. before

32. As a public relations officerhe is said ____ some very influential people.

       A. to know        B. to be knowing    C. to have been knowing       D. to have known

33. —Li Ming is said ____ abroad. Do you know what country he studied in?

  —Yes. In London.

       A. to have studied          B. to study  C. to be studyingD. to have been studying

34. The baby was on the point of crying ____ her mother finally came home.

       A. when B. unless    C. while D. until

35. I____ to have supper____ he returned.

       A. was about; while   B. am about; when C. was just about; when D. was going; while

36. I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave____ something occurred which attracted my attention.

       A. unlessB. until       C. when       D. while

37. We hadn’t been out for long____ she felt sick.

       A. as     B. when     C. while D. after

38. —What was the party like?

 —Wonderful. It’s years____ I enjoyed myself so much.

       A. beforeB. when     C. since  D. after

39. It’s a long time____ I saw you last.

  Yesand it will be a long time____ we meet again.

       A. that; until       B. since; before     C. when; thatD. before; since

40. Don’t forget it’ll be the first time ____ in public.

       A. I’ve spoken          B. I shall speak   C. I will speak    D. I speak

41. Everyone____the chairman____ and the meeting began.

       A. arrived; took his place  B. having arrived; take place

       C. came; took his place        D. having arrived; took his place

42. It seems____ the dress is a bit too large for me. Can I change it____?

       A. even ifinto a smaller one      B. as iffor a smaller one    

       C. as thoughto a bit smaller      D. even thoughfor the smaller one

43. ____ the students were hearing the exciting news!

       A. How pleased  B. What a fun        C. How happily  D. What pleasure

44. How would you like your coffee?

       ____.

       A. It’s well done       B. Very nice. Thank you

       C. One cup. That’s enough   D. The strongerthe better

45. Excuse me. If your call is not too urgent(紧急的)do you mind ____ mine first?

       A. I make      B. if I makeC. me to make          D. that I make

46. If we keep on polluting the environmentthe white plastic rubbish will be the last thing to tell other creature that “____once an earth. ”

      A. there was      B. there is          C. it is    D. it was

47. While watching TV____.

       A. the telephone rangB. I heard the telephone ringing

       C. the telephone was ringing D. the telephone was heard ring

48. What’s the matter with you?

____ the heavy suitcasemy waist was hurt unexpectedly.

A. Carrying        B. Carried   C. While carrying          D. While I was carrying

49. As a boy of six____.

       A. Tim’s parents asked him to play the piano every day

       B. Tim and his parents would play the piano together

       C. Tim had to practise playing the piano every day

       D. To learn playing the piano is too hard for Tim

50. Just after putting away the dishes____.

       A. the door bell was rung B. Mother heard the doorbell ring

       C. Someone knocked at the door      D. the doorbell rang loud

51. Hands ____ behind his headJohn lay on the sand with his eyes looking straight upward into space.

       A. crossing        B. were crossed     C. crossed         D. had crossed

52. To speak English freely____.

       A. a lot of speaking should be done. B. more speaking is necessary

       C. you should do more speaking      D. English should be spoken very often

53. All the preparations for the task____and we’re ready to start.

       A. completed     B. to complete        C. had been completed   D. have been completed

54. Isn’t ____ rude ____ him to talk to his mother like that?

       A. that; for        B. that; of  C. it; for D. it; of

55. It was because of bad weather ____ the football match had to be put off.

       A. so  B. so that    C. why   D. that

56. Word came ____ the British Queen Mother celebrated her 101st birthday in good health____ isn’t surprisingbecause she lives an easy life and gets the best medical care.

       A. that; which    B. which; which     C. that; that       D. when; as

57. She wondered ____ she could have the opportunity to spend ____ here ____ she could learn more about the city.

       A. if; some time; so that       B. how; sometime; so that

       C. when; some times; that    D. if; some time; such that

58. When they went into the shop and asked to look at the wedding ringsthe girl brought out the cheaper ones____ she had arranged with James.

       A. those were what   B. what was that    C. which was what   D. that was what

59. Is this hotel____ offered you a job____ you stayed the first time you arrived here?

       A. which; whereB. the one; in which C. where; that         D. the one that; where

60. Peter won’t drive us to the station. He has ____ to take us all.

       A. a very small car        B. too small a car   C. a too small car          D. such a small car

61. Tom wants to stay up and watch an old movie on TV.

Ten o’clock is ____ for a boy of his age to stay up.

       A. too late an hour         B. too later an hour       C. an hour too late       D. an hour too later

62. Now that you like the house so muchwhy not buy it?

Well. I can’t afford ____ house.

A. that big a       B. a that bigC. that a big       D. a big that

63. These shoes cost ____. What’s morethey are ____ small for me.

       A. much too; too much        B. too much; much too

       C. very much; very         D. very much; too much

64. I’m afraid I’ll turn to Prof. Tomlinson. It is____.

       A. too difficult a problem B. a too difficult problem

       C. so difficult problem         D. a so difficult problem

65. I haven’t seen____ this since I began to collect stamps.

       A. as old a stamp as      B. as an old stamp as C. an old stamp as     D. a such old stamp as

66. Believe it or nothe came ____.

       A. home drunk last night  B. home last night drunk

       C. last night home drunk  D. drunk home last night

67. Will you be sent abroad for further studies?

 I have ____!

       A. no such luck  B. such no luck  C. no such a luck          D. not such a luck

 

Key:

能力过头检测:    ABACD DBDAB BDDAA ACBAB BCCDA CBADA

DAAAC CBCBA DBADB ABDCB CCDDD AACAB

AABAA AA

 

 

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案