GRAMMAR TUTORSHIP

第二十一章 省略形式

基础知识解析

一、省略的概念:为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有时被省略,这种现象称为省略形式。

二、简单句的省略:

1、省略主语:祈使句中主语通常省略。其它省略主语的情况多限于少数现成的说法。如:

Thank you for your help. 谢谢你的帮助。(省略了主语I

See you tomorrow. 明天见。(省略了主语I

2、省略主语或主谓语的一部分。如:

No smoking. 请勿吸烟。(省略了There is

Anything wrong?有什么不妥吗?(省略了Is there

Have a smoke?要来支烟吗?(省略了Will you

What about a cup of tea?来杯茶怎么样?(省略了do you think

Why not say hello to him?为什么不跟他打声招呼?(省略了do you

3、省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留to。如:

Are you going there?  你去那儿吗?

I’d like to. 非常乐意。(省略了go there

He did not give me the chancethough he had promised to. 尽管他曾经答应过我,但不审没有给我机会。(省略了give me the chance

〖注〗在这种情况下,如果该宾语是动词be或完成时态,则须在to之后加上behave。如:

Are you an engineer?  你是工程师吗?

Nobut I want to be. 不是,但我希望是。(be不能同时省略)

He hasn’t finished the task yet. 他尚未完成任务。

Wellhe ought to have. 噢,他早应该完成了。(have不能同时省略)

4、省略表语。如:

Are you thirsty?你口喝吗?

YesI am. 是的。(省略了thirsty

His brother is not lazynor is his sister. 他弟弟不懒,妹妹也不懒。(省略了lazy

5、同时省略几个成分。如:

Let’s meet as the same place as yesterday. 让我们在昨天见面的地方见面。(as后省略了we met

Have you finished your work?你完成了工作吗?

­—Not yet. 还没 有。(Not前省略了I haveNot后省略了finished my work

6、感叹句中的省略。如:

What a wide river!好宽的一条河! (river后省略了it is)

Simply impossible!简直不可能!(impossible后省略了it is)

7、部分问句和其他简略应答。如:

Right? 是吧?

How so? 怎么是这样的?

Why so?为何这样?

Is that so?是这样的吧?

I hope so. 我希望如此。

He said so. 他是这样说的。

I suppose not. 我估计不会。

I believe not. 我相信不是这样的。

I hope not. 我希望不是这样。

8、省略in的词组。如:

He spends his evenings (in) studying English. 他晚上的时间都用来学英语了。

They are busy (in) cleaning the room. 他们忙于打扫房间。

Before liberation we had a hard time (in) getting grain and coal. 解放前,我们生活困苦,缺衣少食。

三、并列句中的省略:

1、两个并列分句中,后一个分句常省略与前一分句中相同的部分。如:

My father is a doctor and my mother a nurse. 我爸爸是医生,妈妈是护士。(my mother后省略了is

I study at college and my sister at high school. 我在读大学,我妹妹在读高中。(sister后省略了studies

When summer comesthe day is getting longer and longerand the night shorter and shorter. 夏天来了,白天越来越长,夜晚越来越短。(the night后省略了is getting

三、复合句中的省略:

1、主句中有一些成分被省略。如:

Sorry to hear that you are ill. 听到你生病的消息我很难过。(sorry前省略了I am

Pity that he missed such a good chance. 他错过了这么好的机会真是可惜。(pity前省略了It is a

2、省略了一个从句或从句的一部分,用sonot代替。如:

Is he coming back tonight?他今晚会回来吗?

I think so. 我相想会的。(so代替从句that he is coming back tonight

She must be busy now. 她现在一定很忙。

If soshe can’t go with us. 如果这样的话,她就不能跟我们一起去了。(so代替从句she is busy

Is he feeling better today?他今天感觉好些了吗?

I’m afraid not. 我想没有。(not代替从句that he is not feeling better today

3、用whenwhileifas ifthough(although)asuntilwhether等连词引导的状语从句中,如果谓语是be,而其主语是it或与主句的主语相同时,则连同动词be一起常常被省略。如:

When (water is) heatedwater is turned into vapour. 水被加热以后,就变成了水蒸汽。

Please write to us as often as (it is) possible. 请尽可能多地写信给我们。

When (it is) necessary you can help us to do something. 必要时,你可以帮我们做些事情。

When (I am) in troubleI always turn to her for help. 我遇到困难时,总是向她求助。

4、以thanasno matter what/who等连词引导的从句后面常常省略某些成分。如:

They do not use more water than (it is) necessary. 他们用不着更多的水了。

I’m taller than he (is tall). 我比他高。

This book is as interesting as that one (is interesting). 这本书和那本书一样有趣。

Anyoneno matter who (he is)may point out our shortcomings. 不管是谁,都可以指出我们的缺点。

5knowthinkconsidersupposefindbelievesaydecide等动词后的宾语从句中常常省略连词that。如:

I think (that) it will clear up this afternoon. 我想今天下午天会放晴。

I believe (that) he will pass the national college entrance examination. 我相信他能通过国家的大学入学考试。

但跟两个(或两个以上)的宾语从句时,只有第一个连词that可以省略,第二个不能省略。如:

He said (that) the text was very important and that we should learn it by heart. 他说课文非常重要,我们应该背下来。

6、定语从句中的关系词thatwhichwhom作宾语时可以省略。如:

There are some films (that) I’d like to see. 有几部我想看的电影。

He is the student (whom/that) we are talking about. 他就是我们正在谈论的那个学生。

7、引导表语从句、同位语从句的that常省略。如:

My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work. 我认类工作中我们可以得到更多同志的帮助。

The fact (that) he had not said anything surprised everybody. 他什么都没有说,这个事实震惊了每一个人。

8、主句与从句各有一些成分省略。如:

The sooner (you do it)the better (it will be). 越快越好。

9、虚拟语气中的省略。如:

I suggest that he (should) study more English before going abroad. 我建议他在出国前多学英语。

It is important that we (should) study science and technology. 学习科学技术对我们而言很重要。

四、不定式符号to的省略:

1、承接上文的不定式或并列的不定式可省去后面的to。如:

I told him to sit down and (to) wait for a moment. 我告诉他坐下等一会儿。

Black people had no right to vote in the southern states. If they wished tothey had to pass a reading test. 南方各州的黑人们没有投票权。如果他们想要投票,就得通过阅读测验。

2、一些使役动词如letmakehave及感官动词如seewatchnoticeobservehearfeellook atlisten to等后面作宾语补足语的不定式一定要省去to。如:

I saw the boy (to) fall from the tree. 我看见这小男孩从树上摔下来。

The boss made us (to) work twelve hours a day. 老板让我们每天工作12小时。

3find作“发现”理解时,后面作宾语补足语的不定式可省略to,也可不省略toto be除外)。如:

We found him (to) work very hard at the experiment. 我们发现他在实验中非常努力。

She found him to be dishonest. 她发现了他的虚伪。

4help作“帮助”理解时,后面作宾语补足语的不定式可省略to,也可不省略to。如:

I will help (to) do it for you. 我会帮你做这件事。

5、介词but前若有动词do,后面的不定式不带to。如:

The boy did nothing but play. 这小男孩就知道玩。

Yesterday he did nothing but wait at home. 他昨天除了在家苦等,什么都没做。

6、主语从句中有动词do,后面作表语的不定式一般不带to。如:

All we can do now is (to) wait. 现在我们能做的只有等。

 

高考试题归类

1. Do you mind my taking this seat?

____. NMET1990

A. Yessit down please       B. Noof course not

C. Yestake it pleaseD. Noyou can’t take it

2. I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?

Not at all. ____. NMET1995

A. I’ve no time          B. I’d rather not     C. I’d like it       D. I’d be happy to

3. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the streetbut his mother told him ____. NMET1995

       A. not to B. not to doC. not do it        D. do not do

4. One of the sides of the board should be painted yellowand ________.      2000春】

A. the other is white   B. another white  C. the other white          D. another is white

5. The boys are not doing a good job at allare they?

    ____. 【京2003春】

    A. I guess not so          B. I don’t guess     C. I don’t guess so        D. I guess not

 

能力过关检测

1. Aren’t you the waitress in this restaurant?

No. And I don’t ____.

A. want to be         B. want to         C. want      D. like to

2. Why are you so busy with the work?

I am doing it so that I won’t have ____ tomorrow.

A. done it          B. to do      C. it to       D. to

3. Wang Dong wanted to surf the Internetbut his father told him____.

       A. not toB. not to doC. not do it          D. do not to

4. Must the composition be finished before class is over?

Noit ____.

A. doesn’t have to  B. hasn’t to C. it doesn’tD. doesn’t have to be

5. I thought you might have got drunk.

____.

A. Almost have       B. Almost had        C. Almost did         D. Almost got

6. Do you happen to have thirty dollars with you?

       ____? 

       I have to buy a Longman English Dictionary.  

       A. How much   B. What for   

C. What will you want to do     D. Buy what

7. Why are you having breakfast so early?

 ____ the first bus.

       A. Because I missed B. Don’t miss. C. Not missing   D. Not to miss

8. Where shall we go for the weekend?

 ____.

       A. One to you   B. Up to you         C. In your opinion        D. According to you

9. —Is Paul playing both soccer and tennis for the school?

       —He ____. But now he has given up playing tennis.

       A. is          B. has        C. was      D. had

10. Janeyou’re wanted on the phone.

       ____.

       A. Coming  B. Holding  C. Calling          D. Speaking

11. ____with the area of AsiaEurope is a small continent.

       A. While comparing       B. CompareC. When compared D. Comparing

12. It is generally believed that children’s brains will be affected ____ too much home work.

       A. if giving B. if to give C. if given         D. gives

13. The dictionary to a student is ____ the tool to a worker.

       A. which    B. what      C. that        D. whatever

14. —I hear Johnson was badly injured in the accident.

       —____let’s go and see him.

       A. What’s more     B. If so      C. Where possible D. When necessary

15. ____he can't educate his own child well.

A. Though a teacher    B. A teacher as he is

C. Being a teacher        D. As he is a teacher

16. I’m sure all will go well as____.

       A. being planned    B. planned  C. having planned D. planning

17. The child complained that the old man made no answer when ____ where he lived.

       A. asking    B. asked     C. to ask    D. having asked

18. While____ from his operationDavid renewed an old interest in stock- car racing.

       A. was recovering  B. recovering         C. was recovered   D. recovered

19. Although ____ in China____ he is well known for his novel about Russia.

       A. lived; 不填        B. born; butC. brought up; yet  D. being raised; 不填

20. There are some mistakes in this composition. If____please correct them.

       A. finding  B. having been found C. found         D. find

21. John seems a nice person. ____I don’t trust him.

       A. Even so  B. Even though  C. Therefore          D. Though

22. If you talk to these senior studentsyou will find that they have much greater knowledge than commonly____.

       A. supposing          B. supposedC. to suppose         D. suppose

23. —Will you go to the party?

 —Of course I will if ____.

       A. I was invited     B. invited    C. having invited    D. I will be invited

24. When ____ to compare the education system of China and Britainthe professor gave no answer.

      A. being asked   B. asking    C. asked     D. to ask

 

答案:

高考试题归类:BDACD

能力过关检测:ADADC BDBCA CCBBA BBBCC ABBC

 

 

 

 

前言

1、名词

2、冠词

3、代词

4、数词

5、介词

6、连词

7、形容词和副词

8、谓语动词

9、主谓一致

10、情态动词

11、虚拟语气

12、非谓语动词

13、句子的成分

14、简单句

15、并列句

16、复合句

17、直接引语与间接引语

18、倒装句

19、独立主格结构

20、否定结构

21、省略

22、插入语

23、情景交际

24、中学英语动词短语

25、常用不规则动词表

26、语法项目表

27、答案