TEACHING & RESEARCH

如何正确使用带-ly与不带-ly的副词

英语里有些带-ly与不带-ly的成对副词,使用起来比较复杂。一般讲来,一致有以下几点值得注意:

1、这类成对的副词有些词义相同,但在句中的位置不同。在口语中,以及在动词或宾语后面,可以用不带-ly的副词。例如:

He spoke loud and clear.他讲话既响亮又清楚。

You’d better go slow in drawing a conclusion.你最好还是慢点下结论。

He was sleeping sound.他正在酣睡。

如果在动词前面或句首,就要用带-ly的副词,而不能用不带-ly的副词。例如:

Rightly or wrongly, he believed what the teacher had said.无论是对还是错,他都相信老师所说的话。

Grain production of this year quickly increased.今年粮食产量迅速增长。

2、在固定短语中,以及和某些动词搭配使用时,只用不带-ly的副词,例如:

play far公平比赛

hold firm to one’s beliefs坚持信仰

Take it easy.别着急。

Easier said than done.说比做容易。

Easy come, easy go.来得容易去得快。

Go slow!慢行(路标)

Don’t talk so loud——you’ll wake the whole street.别那么大声讲话,你快把左邻右舍都吵醒了。(speak, talk, shout, laugh搭配)

I bought this shirt really cheap.这件衬衣我买得真便宜。(与buy, sell一起用)

3、一些副词有无后缀-ly,词义完全不同。这些常见的副词有close(靠近)closely(仔细地);free(免费),freely(无拘无束地);hard(艰辛地)hardly(几乎不)just(刚才;正好;只是),justly(公正地);late(迟),lately(最近);most(很;非常),mostly(主要地;大部分)等。试比较以下例句:

Come close; I want to tell you something.靠近点儿,我有点事要告诉你。

Study this closely; it’s very important.把这个仔细研究一下,它非常重要。

I am working too hard this year.我今年干活太辛苦了。

I’ve hardly got any clean clothes left.我几乎没有什么干净衣服了。

I’ve just finished my homework.我刚做完作业。

The thief was justly punished.这小偷受到了应得的惩罚。

4、有些副词加了-ly后,意义有所引伸。它们常用来修饰过去分词、现在分词或形容词。常见的这些副词有tight(紧紧地),tightly(紧密地);wide(宽),widely(范围广大地;广泛地);direct(直接地),directly(径直地;立即);high(高),highly(非常;高度地)等。试比较:

The arrow fell wide of the mark.那箭落在远离目标的地方。

English is widely used in the world.英语在全世界广泛地使用。

The eagle flies high.鹰飞得很高。

He is a highly skilled worker.他是一个很熟练的工人。

He flew direct to New York.他直飞纽约。

Smith is directly affected by the economic crisis.史密斯立即受到经济危机的影响。

综上所述,在使用带-ly与不带-ly这些成对的副词时,应考虑到它们的词义、句法作用及其惯用法,否则就容易造成语法和理解上的错误。

 

Exercises: Fill in the blanks with the correct words:

1. What pleased me_________(most, mostly) was the story he had told last night.

2. Houses built in England are ____(most, mostly) of brick or stone.

3. She was ____ (deep, deeply) hurt.

4. I want ot go ____ (deep, deeply) into the problem.

5. He opened the door____ (wide, widely).

6. He has traveled ____ (wide, widely).

7. He was ____ (just, justly) punished for his wrong doing.

8. ____ (Just, Justly) a moment! I’ll be ready in no time.

9. He can jump very ____ (high, highly).

10. It’s ____ (high, highly) interesting.

11. Hit it ____ (hard, hardly).

12. I ____ (hard, hardly) studied at all last year.

13. I ____ (right, rightly) guessed that Henry wasn’t coming.

14. It serves you ____ (right, rightly).

Keys:

1. most          2. mostly        3. deeply        4. deep           5. wide           6. widely

7. justly          8. Just            9. high           10. highly       11. hard          12. hardly

13. rightly       14. right(rightly)

 

(本文发表于《高中生语数外》1992年第3)

 

 

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如何正确使用带-ly与不带-ly的副词

 

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