TEACHING & RESEARCH

快速、准确选择定语从句的关系词

舒荣宏

 

学习定语从句,难点在于如何选择使用关系词。如果掌握了选择关系词的方法,其他问题便可迎刃而解,也为进一步学习定语从句打下坚实的基础。

一、首先必须深刻理解定语从句的概念和关系词的特征。

1、在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句所修饰的词叫做先行词,定语从句放在先行词的后面。引起定语从句的词叫做关系代词或关系副词,它们既起联系作用,又在定语从句中充当一个成分(主语,宾语,表语,状语或定语)。

2、先行词分三类:代表人(person)、代表物(thing)和代表全句的先行词。

3、关系词指的是先行词所代表的意义,又代表先行词在定语从句中起某种句子成分的作用。

4、英语中的定语与所修饰的先行词相当于汉语中的偏正词组,不过,表达顺序有时相反。汉语中被修饰的词在后,定语前置;英语中被修饰的词在前,定语后置。

二、根据对定语从句概念的理解,当我们需要判断究竟使用哪个关系词时,就必须先找出先行词,并提出以下两个问题:

1、先行词是指人(person)还是指物(thing),还是指代全句?

2、如将此先行词搭配到定语从句中去,它应当充当什么成分?(亦关系词在定语从句中充当什么成分?)

根据上述问题查下表,就可知该选用哪个关系词了。

 

关系代词

关系副词

主语

宾语(表语)

定语

状语

时间

地点

原因

方式

person

who

that

(whom)

(who)

(that)

whose

/

/

/

/

thing

which

that

(which)

(that)

whose

when

where

why

(how)

(that)

全句

as

which

as

which

/

/

/

/

/

注意:

1)表中加括号的表示可以省略。打“/”号的表示没有该项目。

2)关系词前有介词时,指人用whom,指物用which,不能省略。

3)一般只有非限制性定语从句才能修饰整个句子。

4)指物时,当先行词是不定代词allmucheverythinganythinglittlenobodynothingsomething时;当先行词被alleverynosomeanylittlemuch及形容词最高级所修饰时;当先行词为序数词或被the onlythe verythe last修饰时;当先行词既包含人又包含物时;当主语是以who/which开头的特殊疑问句时,关系词用that而不用which

5)先行词前有suchthe same时,关系词用as而不用thatwhich等。

6)引导非限制性定语从句时,as在从句中作主语、表语或宾语,代表主句整个意义,所引导的定语从句位置灵活,可以放在主句之前,也可以放在句中或主句之后。which引导的定语从句则不能放在句首。as为“正如、就像”之意,而which则无此意。

操练:试在下列句中填入适当的关系代词或关系副词。

(1) It sounded like a train____ was going under my house.

(2) The number of people ____ lost homes reached as many as 250,000.

(3) I hope to get such a dictionary ____ he is using.

(4) Bamboo is hollow, ____ makes it very light.

(5) First, it is not a good idea to build houses along the lines ____ two of the earth’s plates join together.

(6) The car ____ my uncle had just bought was destroyed in the earthquake.

(7) The boy ____ we saw yesterday was John’s brother.

(8) Her performance was excellent, ____ we had expected.

(9) The doctor ____ is leaving for Africa next month. (1983)

      A. the nurse is talking to him        B. whom the nurse is talking

       C. the nurse is talking to               D. who the nurse is talking

(10) After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. (1996)

       A. which        B. where               C. that                   D. when

(11) In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ____ she could turn for help. (1992)

       A. that            B. who                  C. from whom              D. to whom

(12) He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most of ____ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year.

       A. these          B. those                 C. that                   D. which

答案:(1)先行词指物,关系词在定语从句中作主语,用thatwhich;(2)先行词指人,关系词在定语从句中作主语,用whothat;(3)先行词a dictionarysuch修饰,关系词用as;(4)关系词指代主句整个句子所表示的内容,不能译为“正如、就像”的意义,关系词用which;(5)先行词指物,关系词在从句中作地点状语,用where;(6)先行词指物,关系词作宾语,用whichthat,可省略;(7)先行词指人,关系词作宾语,用whomthat,可省略;(8)关系词指代整个主句的内容,可以译为“正如、就像”,关系词用as。本句可改写为:As we had expected, her performance was excellent。(9)先行词the doctor指人,关系词作talking to的宾语,用whomthat,被省略,选C;(10)先行词town指物,关系词作grew up的地点状语,用where,选B;(11)先行词指人,关系词作turn to的宾语,用whomthatto 置于关系词前,故选D,用whomthatto置于关系词前,故选D,不能用to that;(12)先行词windows指物,关系词作介词of的宾语,只能选D

 

(本文发表于《英语通》(高一版)20025

 

 

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