TEACHING & RESEARCH

谈定语从句

舒荣宏

下面从历届高考试题的完形填空、阅读理解、短文改错等试题中列举数例,看看掌握定语从句对听、说、读、写的重要性。

97年完形填空:

Todd was working at his gas station at night when he heard over the radio that a (26)____ bank in Long Island had been (27) ____ broken into by an armed man who had killed the night guard and got away with $150,000. “One hundred and fifty thousand,” Todd whistled. Here’s a fellow who just (28) ____ walks into a bank and helps himself (29) ____ to so much money. Todd thought of the (30) ____ difficulty {with which he managed to get the amount of money [he(31) ____ needed] to start his gas station}.

注①:修饰man。一个武装分子,他杀害了守夜人,抢走了150,000美元。注②:修饰a fellow。这个小伙子走进一家银行尽情取走那么多钱。注③:with到句末查第一层次的定语从句,修饰difficultyTodd想起了当时他想方设法去弄开办加油站所需的那么一笔钱的困难。注④:第二层次的定语从句,修饰第一层定语从句中的money,他所需的那笔钱。

97年阅读理解:

Allan goes everywhere with Birgitta Anderson, a 54-year-old secretary. He moves around her office at work and goes shopping with her. “Most people don’t seem to mind Allan”, says Birgitta, who thinks he is wonderful. “He’s my fourth child,” she says. She may think of him and treat him that way, buying his food, paying his health bills and his taxes, but in fact Allan is a dog.

Birgitta and Allan live in Sweden, a country where everyone is expected to lead an orderly life according to rules laid down by the government, which also provides a high level of care for its people. This level of care costs money.

People in Sweden pay taxes on everything, so aren’t surprised to find that owning a dog means yet more taxes. Some people are paying as much as 500 Swedish kronor in taxes a year for the right to keep their dog, money {that is spent by the government on dog hospitals and sometimes medical treatment for a dog [that falls ill]}. however, most such treatment is expensive, so owners often decide to pay health and even life insurance for their dog.

In Sweden dog owners must pay for any damage their dog does. A Swedish Kennel Club official explains what this means: If your dog runs out on the road and gets hit by a passing car you, as the owner, have to pay for any damage done to the car, even if your dog has been killed in the accident.

注①:非限制性定语从句,修饰Birgitta。她认为他很优秀;注②:修饰a country 一个人们希望按政府所制定的规则能过上有秩序的生活的乡村;注③:非限制性定语,修饰the government。政府也为人民提供高水平的关照;注④:第一层定语从句从that is spentill,修饰money。这笔钱由政府花在狗医院,有时还花在给生病的狗的治疗上;注⑤:第二层定语从句that falls ill修饰第一层定语从句中的a dog(生病的狗);注⑥:修饰any damage,他们的狗所造成的损坏。

2000年阅读理解:

“It was the best night we’ve ever had,” said Angela Carraro, who runs an Italian restaurant on 42nd Street.

注①:定语从句修饰the best night,我们所度过的最好的夜晚;注②:非限制性定语从句修饰Angela Carraro,(他)在42号街开一家意大利餐馆。

Naturally, this card game has often been of considerable interest to people who are, by any standards, good thinkers.

注:定语从句who are good thinkers修饰peopleby any standards为插入语。

短文改错:

…I also enjoyed the evenings when we spent together. And I can’t forget the good food you cooked for me.(1995)

说明:先行词the evenings指时间,但在定语从句中作spent的宾语,故关系词用whichthat

My name is Li Hua. I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China.(1997)

说明:非限制性定语从句,修饰Beijing,关系词作定语从句的主语,故改为which

 

(本文发表于《英语周报》(高中教师版)2002——2003年度第2期)

 

 

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谈定语从句